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CELL STRUCTURE Common Features of Cells All have plasma membrane (cell membrane) All have nuclear region All have cytoplasm cytoplasm cell membrane nuclear.

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Presentation on theme: "CELL STRUCTURE Common Features of Cells All have plasma membrane (cell membrane) All have nuclear region All have cytoplasm cytoplasm cell membrane nuclear."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL STRUCTURE Common Features of Cells All have plasma membrane (cell membrane) All have nuclear region All have cytoplasm cytoplasm cell membrane nuclear region

2 STRUCTURE OF CELL MEMBRANE The cell membrane has a two-layered structure mainly made of protein, lipid and carbohydrate molecules Protein molecules are embedded in the lipid bilayer Carbohydrate molecules may branch out from the external surface of the membrane Carbohydrate chains bonded to lipids form glycolipids Carbohydrate chains bonded to proteins form glycoproteins

3 Lipid bilayer

4 GLYCOPROTEINGLYCOPROTEIN GLYCOLIPIDGLYCOLIPID PHOSPHOLIPIDS STRUCTURE OF CELL MEMBRANE CARBOHYDRATES PROTEINS Fluid – Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane: (by Singer and Nicholson)

5 Proteins in the cell membrane do several different functions.

6 PROTEINS OF CELL MEMBRANE Transport Proteins:Control the movement of substances through the cell membrane Receptor proteins: They bind with messenger molecules to begin or stop metabolic activities Enzymes: Catalyze reactions Structural proteins: Help bind the membrane to neighboring cells or structural elements in the cytoplasm Identity proteins: Distinguish the cell from other cells

7 Proteins of Cell Membrane

8 Selective permeability enables the cell to protect the inner balance (homeostasis).

9 The molecules that can pass EASILY through the cell membrane Small molecules such as –Water –Oxygen –Carbon dioxide –Glucose –Amino acids –Urea Molecules that can dissolve lipids such as –Alcohol –Ether Polymers The molecules that CANNOT pass through the membrane

10 Lipid molecules (fatty acids, glycerol) pass through cell membranes easily. Electrically neutral molecules enter and leave cells more easily than electrically charged ions. Fat soluable vitamins (A, D, E,K) can pass easier than water soluable vitamins. In animal cells (+) ions can pass easier than (-) ions.

11  Prevents the cell contents from interacting with the surrounding medium  Gives shape and mechanical strength to the cell  Controls the material transport

12 CYTOPLASM AND ORGANELLES Cytoplasm: –Fluid-filling part of the cell –Occupies the space between the membrane and the nucleus –Includes the cytoskeleton, organelles and cytosol. –65-95% water –Contains many substances (granular proteins mostly) –Also contains carbohydrates, lipids, enzymes, minerals, vitamins and pigments

13 CYTOPLASM AND ORGANELLES

14 Organelles: In eukaryotic cells there are secondary compartments covered with cell membrane. These are called organelles. An organelle is the part of the cell which is responsible for a specific function. CYTOPLASM AND ORGANELLES

15 Cytoskeleton: –is the skeleton of the cell –an interconnected system of protein fibers and thin strands –gives cells their shape and internal organization –composed of microtubules and microfilaments CYTOPLASM AND ORGANELLES

16 Cytoskeleton: Microtubules are linked in parallel rows. In animal cells microfilaments are found. They play role in muscle contraction.

17 CYTOPLASM AND ORGANELLES The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell includes the following organelles: ribosome endoplasmic reticulum mitochondrion Golgi bodies lysosome peroxisome vacuole plastids centrosome

18 RIBOSOME Tiny, granular structures Found in all cells without any exception Made of RNA and protein Some are found freely in cytoplasm and some are attached to the ER Ribosomes are produced in nucleolus

19  Function: Proteins synthesis  Ribosomes are made of two subunits  Bacterial cells have smaller ribosomes. RIBOSOME  When there is no protein synthesis in the cell these subunits are separate from each other. They come together in order to be functional.

20 ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

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22 Made of cell membrane Found in all cells except red blood cells and bacterial cells Two types: –Smooth ER (no ribosomes on it) –Rough ER (ribosomes on the outer surface) ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

23 Functions: carries proteins to Golgi body provides a pathway for the transport of molecules throughout the cell smooth ER synthesizes lipids provides support to the cell divides the cytoplasm into compartments (different type of chemical reactions can take place at the same time) plays role in the contraction of skeletal muscles ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

24 MITOCHONDRIA

25 is the place where aerobic cellular respiration takes place in eukaryotic cells surrounded by double-layered membrane inner membrane has foldings called cristae, which provides a large surface area for the chemical reactions the fluid that fills the interior space is called matrix matrix includes ribosomes, DNA, RNA and proteins can duplicate itself MITOCHONDRIA

26 Golgi Body (Golgi apparatus)

27 Golgi Body Consist of a stack of flat, membrane –enclosed sacs and small vesicles Present in all cells except blood and sperm cells Plant cells have more golgi than animal cells They have connections with the membranes of E.R.

28 Functions of golgi: Secretion Modifiying the molecules like glycoproteins and glycolipids coming from the E.R, and releasing them to cytoplasm. The vesicles originating from the golgi moves towards the cell membrane and the cell mebrane expands. It forms lysosomes. Some vacuoles are formed by golgi. Helps formation of cell wall in plants. Golgi Body

29 Golgi bodies are highly developed in gland cells. For ex, their number is very high in salivary glands. Gastric glands and cells which produce nectar in plants.

30 Lysosome They are spherical structures surrounded by a single membrane. They are formed by golgi. They contain hydrolytic (digestive) enzymes. When lysosomes burst and release these enzymes, the cell starts to digest itself. It is called autolysis. Mostly found in animal cells that make phagocytosis. For ex; humans white blood cells.

31 Lysosome Functions: They digest intracellular and extracellular molecules. They digest worn –out cell organelles. They function in defence of the cell. They are found at the head part of the sperm cells and let sperms hydrolizye the outer wall of the egg.

32 Lysosome Functions: They function in defense of the cell. For ex; white blood cells contain high no. of lysosomes They are found at the head part of the sperm cells and let sperms hydrolyze the outer wall of the egg.

33 Peroxisome They bud from the membranes of E.R. As a result of breaking down amino acids and fatty acids, a highly toxic molecule, H 2 O 2 (hydrogen peroxide) is produced. Peroxisomes contain catalase enzyme that breaks down H 2 O 2. They are especially found in liver, heart and muscle cells in humans.

34 They are fluid filled organelles surrounded with single membrane. Minerals, waste products, nutrients and some pigments are stored in vacuoles. They are found both in animal and plant cells, but animal cells have smaller vacuoles than plant cells. The immature plant cells have small vacuoles. As the plant cell matures merge to form one big vacuole. Vacuoles

35 There are three types of vacuoles: 1. Digestive vacuole:  Found in unicellular organisms and white blood cells.  They are formed when a food molecule is taken into the cell and it’s surrounded by the cell membrane. Vacuoles

36 2. Contractile vacuole:  Found in unicellular organisms that live in fresh water. For ex:Paramecium  They pump out the excess water that goes inside the organism.

37 3. Storage vacuole:  In plants, toxic waste materials are stored in storage vacuoles.  They also store some pigments that give color to plant parts. Vacuoles

38 They are found only in plant cells!!! They are surrounded by double membrane. There are three types of plastids: Chloroplasts Chromoplasts Leucoplasts PLASTIDS

39 Chloroplast GranaStroma Outer membrane Inner membrane  They contain the green pigment chlorophyll.  Chlorophyll converts the light energy into chemical energy (photosynthesis).

40 Chloroplast

41 Grana:Stroma: Outer membrane Inner membrane  Formed with the foldings of thylakoid membranes  Include the chlorophyll pigment  Fluid-filling part  Include enzymes, DNA, RNA, ribosomes and other organic molecules

42 Chloroplast The main function of chloroplasts is photosynthesis. They convert light energy into chemical energy and store it in ATP. But the ATP produced in the chloroplasts never get out of this organelle. They are used in photosynthesis only.

43 Chromoplast  They contain different color pigments that give red, yellow, orange color to different parts of plants.  These pigments do not play role in photosynthesis.  They are sensitive to light.  When chloroplasts are exposed to sunlight they can turn into chromoplasts. (Ex. Green tomato Red tomato)

44 Leukoplasts Leucoplasts: They are usually located at tissues that are not exposed to sunlight (ex: roots) They store starch, oil and other plant products. Ex:Potato starch Corn lipid Bean protein They can turn into chloroplast when they are exposed to light. Potato

45 Centrosome  made up of two perpendicular cylinders called centrioles  contains microtubules  located near the nucleus  function in cell division  they produce spindle fibers which moves the chromosomes during cell division  plant cells don’t have centrosomes

46 Cell Wall  plants, fungi, algae and bacteria have cell wall  is not alive  main function: protects the cell, gives its shape, gives mechanical support

47 BacteriaProtistsFungiPlantsAnimals Ribosome E.R. - Mitochondrion - Golgi body - Lysosome - - Peroxisome - Central vacuole - Only contractile vacuole Digestive vacuole Plastids Centrosome - - Cell mambrane Cell wall - -

48 Nucleus  DNA is located in nucleus in a eukaryotic cell.  usually cells have one nucleus.  Bacteria, and mature red blood cells do not have nucleus.  control center for cell metabolism and reproduction  if it is removed the cell dies

49 Experiments on nucleus I Ameba (lives) II The cell is divided into two as shown I dies II lives I II The cell is divided into two as shown Both cells die because nucleus is destroyed The nucleus of the cell is removed The cell dies An ameba cell ABCD

50 The Structure of a Nucleus

51 The nucleus has three main parts:  Nuclear membrane  Nucleoplasm (contains chromatin)  Nucleolus

52 - it is a double membrane which isolates the nucleus -it has connection with the membrane of ER -it has pores that provide the passage of mRNA and some proteins 1. The nuclear membrane:

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54 -fluid – filling part of the nucleus -includes water, protein, DNA, RNA, minerals and nucleotides 2. Nucleoplasm:

55 -dense mass of irregular size and shape -produces ribosomes and involved in protein synthesis -the cells which have a high metabolic rate have more nucleoli than the others 3. Nucleolus (pl.Nucleoli): nucleolus

56 Coiling starts It is visible under light microscope only during cell division Histones It is not visible under light microscope (cannot be seen before and after cell division) Chromatin strands Chromatin Chromosome

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58 Relationship between mitochondria and chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Glucose + O 2 light energy ATP (for cellular work) Chloroplast Mitochondria

59 Comparison of Mitochondria and Chloroplast MitochondriaChloroplast DNA,RNA, Ribosome  Double membrane  ChlorophyllX  ATP for cellular activities  X

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