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بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. روش ارزشیابی درس ارزشیابی درس تئوری با اخذ کوئیز در طول ترم به (میزان 10% نمره نهایی) و برگزاری امتحان پایان ترم بصورت کتبی.

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Presentation on theme: "بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. روش ارزشیابی درس ارزشیابی درس تئوری با اخذ کوئیز در طول ترم به (میزان 10% نمره نهایی) و برگزاری امتحان پایان ترم بصورت کتبی."— Presentation transcript:

1 بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

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3 روش ارزشیابی درس ارزشیابی درس تئوری با اخذ کوئیز در طول ترم به (میزان 10% نمره نهایی) و برگزاری امتحان پایان ترم بصورت کتبی ( سئوالات چهارگزینه ای ،جواب کوتاه، تکمیلی و تطبیقی ) به ارزش 80% نمره نهایی و اختصاص 10% نمره نهایی به حضور منظم در کلاس و پاسخ به پرسشهای مطرح در کلاس انجام می شود. ارزشیابی درس تئوری با اخذ کوئیز در طول ترم به (میزان 10% نمره نهایی) و برگزاری امتحان پایان ترم بصورت کتبی ( سئوالات چهارگزینه ای ،جواب کوتاه، تکمیلی و تطبیقی ) به ارزش 80% نمره نهایی و اختصاص 10% نمره نهایی به حضور منظم در کلاس و پاسخ به پرسشهای مطرح در کلاس انجام می شود. ارزشیابی واحد عملی : با اخذ امتحان عملی در تشخیص ایستگاهی لامهای دمونستره شده در زیر میکروسکوپ ، حضور فعال در آزمایشگاه وانجام تکالیف آزمایشگاهی انجام می شود. ارزشیابی واحد عملی : با اخذ امتحان عملی در تشخیص ایستگاهی لامهای دمونستره شده در زیر میکروسکوپ ، حضور فعال در آزمایشگاه وانجام تکالیف آزمایشگاهی انجام می شود.

4 منابع مورد استفاده در تدريس : 1-Basic Clinical Porasitology by/ Brown. Last Ed. 1-Basic Clinical Porasitology by/ Brown. Last Ed. 2-Medical porasitology by/Markell. Last Ed. 2-Medical porasitology by/Markell. Last Ed. 3-Worms and Human disease by / Muller. Last Ed. 3-Worms and Human disease by / Muller. Last Ed. 4- قارچ شناسی پزشکی تالیف دکتر شهلا شادزی – آخرین چاپ 4- قارچ شناسی پزشکی تالیف دکتر شهلا شادزی – آخرین چاپ 5- قارچ شناسی پزشکی تالیف دکترمسعود امامی وهمکاران 5- قارچ شناسی پزشکی تالیف دکترمسعود امامی وهمکاران

5 هدف کلی جلسه : شناخت انواع روابط بین موجودات زنده، آشنایی با زندگی انگلی و تقسیمات انگلی و واژه های مورد استفاده در انگل شناسی و کلیات تک یاخته شناسی اهداف رفتاری: پس از مطالعه این جلسه دانشجو باید قادر باشد تا: اهداف رفتاری: پس از مطالعه این جلسه دانشجو باید قادر باشد تا: - انگل شناسی و زندگی انگلی را تعریف نماید. - انگل شناسی و زندگی انگلی را تعریف نماید. -انواع زندگی اشتراکی و دسته بندی انگلها و میزبانها را بیان و تعریف کند. -انواع زندگی اشتراکی و دسته بندی انگلها و میزبانها را بیان و تعریف کند. - ویژگیهای تک یاخته ها رابیان کند. - ویژگیهای تک یاخته ها رابیان کند. - اعمال حیاتی در تک یاخته ها را شرح دهد. - اعمال حیاتی در تک یاخته ها را شرح دهد. - انواع روشهای تکثیر در تک یاخته ها را نام برده و توضیح دهد. - انواع روشهای تکثیر در تک یاخته ها را نام برده و توضیح دهد. - تک یاخته های مهم در پزشکی را دسته بندی نماید. - تک یاخته های مهم در پزشکی را دسته بندی نماید.

6 Different Forms of Symbiosis Commensallism Commensallism Mutualism Mutualism Foresis Foresis Parasitism Parasitism Parasite: Parasite:

7 Different kinds of Parasites (based on relationship between Parasite & Host) 1- Ectoparasite;…… Fleas or Ticks 1- Ectoparasite;…… Fleas or Ticks 2- Endoparasite;….. Intestinal Amebae 2- Endoparasite;….. Intestinal Amebae 3- Facultative-p. ….. Free living Amebae 3- Facultative-p. ….. Free living Amebae 4- Obligate-p. ….. Filaria 4- Obligate-p. ….. Filaria 5- Permanent-p. …... Intestinal Worms 5- Permanent-p. …... Intestinal Worms 6- Temporary-p. …. Anopheles spp. 6- Temporary-p. …. Anopheles spp. 7- Accidental-p. Fasciola hepatica 7- Accidental-p. Fasciola hepatica 8- Abberant-p. …….. Toxocara canis 8- Abberant-p. …….. Toxocara canis

8 Different kinds of Host Host : Host : Definitive(Final) Host; …… Anopheles for Malaria p. Definitive(Final) Host; …… Anopheles for Malaria p. Intermediate Host; …………Human for Malaria p. Intermediate Host; …………Human for Malaria p. Reserervior Host;….……… ? Reserervior Host;….……… ? Paratenic Host;……… ? Paratenic Host;……… ? Dead-End Host……….? Dead-End Host……….?

9 Clasification of Parasites 1- Ectoparasites (Arthropoda) 1- Ectoparasites (Arthropoda) 2- Endoparasites: 2- Endoparasites: A)- Protozoa A)- Protozoa - Using Light Microscopic ; (Amebae,Flagellates,Ciliates,Sporozoea) - Using Light Microscopic ; (Amebae,Flagellates,Ciliates,Sporozoea) - Using Electronic Microscopic ; (Sarcomastigophora,Apicomplexa,,Microspora ) - Using Electronic Microscopic ; (Sarcomastigophora,Apicomplexa,,Microspora ) B)Metazoa B)Metazoa Helminthes; [ Nematoda, Platy-Helminthes(Trematoda,Cestoda)] Helminthes; [ Nematoda, Platy-Helminthes(Trematoda,Cestoda)]

10 Living things Kingdom 1- Animalia: Metazoa (many-celled animals ) 1- Animalia: Metazoa (many-celled animals ) 2-Plants 3- Protista: Protozoa( sigle-celled animals ) 3- Protista: Protozoa( sigle-celled animals ) 4- Monera 4- Monera 5-Fungi 5-Fungi

11 Protozoa Definition Definition Number Number Size Size Form Form ectoplasm ectoplasm cytoplasm cytoplasm endoplasm endoplasm Body of protozoa: protoplasm Body of protozoa: protoplasm nucleoplasm nucleoplasm

12 Vital functions 1-Locomotion: locomotory organelles; 1-Locomotion: locomotory organelles; 1- Pseudopodia 2- Cilia 1- Pseudopodia 2- Cilia 3- Flagellum 4- Undulating membran 3- Flagellum 4- Undulating membran 5- without l.organell (gliding movement) 5- without l.organell (gliding movement) 2-Respiration: 2-Respiration: aerobic (blood & tissue pro.) micro-aerophilic (intestinal pro.) aerobic (blood & tissue pro.) micro-aerophilic (intestinal pro.) 3- Nutrition : 3- Nutrition : - pinocytosis - pinocytosis -phagocytosis -phagocytosis - cell mouth ( cytostome ) - cell mouth ( cytostome ) - cell anus ( cytopyge ) - cell anus ( cytopyge )

13 Reproduction of protozoa Asexual Asexual 1- Binary-fission (amaebae) 1- Binary-fission (amaebae) 2-Budding or Endodiogeny Coccidia 2-Budding or Endodiogeny Coccidia 3- Schizogony (merogony) 3- Schizogony (merogony) plasmodium plasmodium Sexual Sexual o 1- Syngamy o Free-flagellates o 2- Sprogony o Malaria parasites o 3-Conjugation o Ciliata

14 Life cycle of protozoa Trophozoite transmission: Trophozoite transmission: (e.g.; Enta. Gingivalis) (e.g.; Enta. Gingivalis) Cyst transmission Cyst transmission * Encystment factors * Excystment factors

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16 Kingdom protista (classification of sub-kingdom protozoa) phylum: Apicomplexa Sarcomstigophora Ciliophora Microspora phylum: Apicomplexa Sarcomstigophora Ciliophora Microspora Subph: Sarcodina Mastigophora Subph: Sarcodina Mastigophora (Amebae) (Flagellates) (Amebae) (Flagellates) Parasitic Amebae Free-living Amebae Parasitic Amebae Free-living Amebae Family: Endamoebidae Genus: Entamoeba Iodamoeba Endolimax gingivalis butschlii nana gingivalis butschlii nana Sp. hartmani histolytica histolytica coli coli dispare dispare

17 Entamoeba gingivalis (non-pathogen) - Prevalance rate: … to 90% of dental patient - Prevalance rate: … to 90% of dental patient 10% of person with good oral hygiene 10% of person with good oral hygiene Live site : in pyorrheal pocket, tonsillar crypts Morphology : -only the trophozoite stage has been found Morphology : -only the trophozoite stage has been found - cytoplasm contain bacteria and ingested leukocytes - cytoplasm contain bacteria and ingested leukocytes Diagnosis : may be mistaken for E.histolytica from a pulmonary abscess Diagnosis : may be mistaken for E.histolytica from a pulmonary abscess

18 Amebiasis (Amebic Dysentery) Causal agent: Entamoeba histolytica is well recognized as a pathogenic amoeba. Geographic Distribution: Worldwide, with higher incidence of amebiasis in developing countries. Geographic Distribution: Worldwide, with higher incidence of amebiasis in developing countries. In industrialized countries, risk groups include male homosexuals, travelers and recent immigrants, and institutionalized populations. In industrialized countries, risk groups include male homosexuals, travelers and recent immigrants, and institutionalized populations.

19 Morphology Different form of E. histolytica; Different form of E. histolytica; 1- trophozoite 1- trophozoite 2- precyst 2- precyst 3- cyst(1, 2, 4 nuclei) 3- cyst(1, 2, 4 nuclei)

20 Trophozoite chractere Size: μm in diameter ; Size: μm in diameter ; Non-invasive form ( minuta) / E. dispare Non-invasive form ( minuta) / E. dispare Invasive form (magna) contain RBC, E. histolytica Invasive form (magna) contain RBC, E. histolytica Pseudopodia Pseudopodia Motility Motility Ectoplasm Ectoplasm Endoplasm : Endoplasm : Nucleoplasm : Nucleoplasm : Non-invasive form invasive form

21 Different form of E.histolytica cyst

22 Life cycle

23 Epidemiology Prevalence of amebic infection varies with level of sanitation and generally higher in tropics and subtropics than in tempearate climates. Prevalence of amebic infection varies with level of sanitation and generally higher in tropics and subtropics than in tempearate climates. *Worldwide prevalence is about 10% to 50% *Cyst passers are important source of infection *Cyst passers are important source of infection The true estimated prevalence of E. histolytica is close to 1% worldwide. The true estimated prevalence of E. histolytica is close to 1% worldwide. Entamoeba histolytica is the second leading cause of mortality due to parasitic disease in humans. (The first being malaria). Amebiasis is the cause of an estimated 50, ,000 deaths each year. Entamoeba histolytica is the second leading cause of mortality due to parasitic disease in humans. (The first being malaria). Amebiasis is the cause of an estimated 50, ,000 deaths each year.

24 Transmission ways 1-driect contact of person to person( fecal-oral) 1-driect contact of person to person( fecal-oral) 2- Veneral transmission among homosexual males( oral-anal 2- Veneral transmission among homosexual males( oral-anal 3- Food or drink contaminated with feces containing the E.his. Cyst 3- Food or drink contaminated with feces containing the E.his. Cyst 4- Use of human feces (night soil) for soil fertilizer 4- Use of human feces (night soil) for soil fertilizer 5- contamination of foodstuffs by flies, and possibly cockroaches 5- contamination of foodstuffs by flies, and possibly cockroaches

25 Pathogenesis factors Effective factores: Effective factores: 1- strain virulence 1- strain virulence 2- susceptibility of the host; nutrition status, immune-sys. 2- susceptibility of the host; nutrition status, immune-sys. 3- breakdown of immunologic barrier (tissue invasion) 3- breakdown of immunologic barrier (tissue invasion)

26 Pathogenicity mechanisms 1- secreting proteolytic enzymes( histolysine ) and cytotoxic substances. 1- secreting proteolytic enzymes( histolysine ) and cytotoxic substances. 2 - contact-dependent cell killing 2 - contact-dependent cell killing 3 – cytophagocytosis 3 – cytophagocytosis

27 Clinical symptoms Asymptomatic infection Symptomatic infection Asymptomatic infection Symptomatic infection Intestinal Amebiasis Extraintestinal Amebiasis Intestinal Amebiasis Extraintestinal Amebiasis Dysenteric Non-Dysenteric colitis Hepatic Pulmonary The extra foci Dysenteric Non-Dysenteric colitis Hepatic Pulmonary The extra foci Liver abscces Acut nonsupprative Liver abscces Acut nonsupprative Intestinal Amebiasis symptoms: Diarrhea or dysentery, abdominal pain, cramping, anorexia, weight loss, chronic fatigue Intestinal Amebiasis symptoms: Diarrhea or dysentery, abdominal pain, cramping, anorexia, weight loss, chronic fatigue

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29 Extra-ntestinalAmebiasis

30 Pyogenic- Liver Abscess

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32 This is an amebic abscess of liver. Abscesses may arise in liver when there is seeding of infection from the bowel, because the infectious agents are carried to the liver from the portal venous circulation.

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34 Laboratory Diagnosis Microscopic identification of cysts and trophozoites in the stool is the common method for diagnosing E. histolytica. This can be accomplished using: Microscopic identification of cysts and trophozoites in the stool is the common method for diagnosing E. histolytica. This can be accomplished using: * Fresh stool: wet mounts and permanently stained preparations (e.g., trichrome). * Concentrates from fresh stool

35 Treatment Intestinal Amebiasis: Intestinal Amebiasis: * Asymptomatic amebiasis(cyst passer) : Diloxanide furoate ( furamide) 500 mg 3 times daily / 10 days 500 mg 3 times daily / 10 days * Symptomatic amebiasis ( troph. & cyst): - Iodoquinol, 650 mg 3 times daily/ 20 days or Metronidazole (Flagyl), 750 mg 3 times daily/ 10 days

36 Treatment Extraintestinal Amebiasis : Extraintestinal Amebiasis : * Amebic liver abscess, ameboma: Metronidazole plus dehydroemetine / 10 days or Metronidazole or dehydroemetine plus Chloroquine

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38 بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم

39 Mastigophora Zoomastigophora Phytomastigophora Zoomastigophora Phytomastigophora Intestinal & Urogenital F. Blood & Tissue F. Intestinal & Urogenital F. Blood & Tissue F. Pathogen F. : -Trichomonas vaginalis Pathogen F. : -Trichomonas vaginalis - Giardia lamblia - Giardia lamblia - Dientamoeba fragilis - Dientamoeba fragilis Non-pathogen F. : T. tenax Non-pathogen F. : T. tenax T. hominis T. hominis …………. ………….

40 Trichomonas tenax (T. buccalis) It is a small organism( 6 to 1o µ m) It is a small organism( 6 to 1o µ m) Occure most frequently I pyorrheal pockets and tonsillar crypts Occure most frequently I pyorrheal pockets and tonsillar crypts

41 Trichomonas hominis Trophozoite size: 7 to 15 µ m long Trophozoite size: 7 to 15 µ m long Recurrent flagellum parallels the body, running to the posterior end, projects behind the body as a free flagellum Recurrent flagellum parallels the body, running to the posterior end, projects behind the body as a free flagellum

42 Trichomonas vaginalis Trophozoite motility : is jerky nondirectional in the vaginal secretions Trophozoite motility : is jerky nondirectional in the vaginal secretions

43 Morphology of Trichomonas Spp.

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45 Predispose factors : - Ph changes - Bacterial flora change - Physiological changes Pathogenesis: -At least four surface protein contribute in host cell adherence. -Contact- dependent cytopathic effect ( kill target cells by direct contact without phagocytosis) -Produce a cell-detaching factor

46 Clinical Features: The incubation period is 5 to 28 days. The incubation period is 5 to 28 days. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women is frequently symptomatic. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women is frequently symptomatic. Vaginitis with a purulent discharge is the prominent symptom, and can be accompanied by vulvar and cervical lesions, abdominal pain, dysuria, dyspareunia and cystitis. Vaginitis with a purulent discharge is the prominent symptom, and can be accompanied by vulvar and cervical lesions, abdominal pain, dysuria, dyspareunia and cystitis. In men, the infection is frequently asymptomatic; occasionally, urethritis, epididymitis, and prostatitis can occur. In men, the infection is frequently asymptomatic; occasionally, urethritis, epididymitis, and prostatitis can occur.

47 Laboratory Diagnosis: Microscopic examination of wet mounts is the most practical and rapid method of diagnosis (allowing immediate treatment), but it is relatively insensitive. Microscopic examination of wet mounts is the most practical and rapid method of diagnosis (allowing immediate treatment), but it is relatively insensitive. In women, examination should be performed on vaginal and urethral secretions. In women, examination should be performed on vaginal and urethral secretions. In men, anterior urethral or prostatic secretions should be examined. In men, anterior urethral or prostatic secretions should be examined. Culture of the parasite is the most sensitive method, but results are not available for 3 to 7 days. Culture of the parasite is the most sensitive method, but results are not available for 3 to 7 days. Direct immunofluorescent antibody staining is more sensitive than wet mounts, but technically more complex. Direct immunofluorescent antibody staining is more sensitive than wet mounts, but technically more complex.

48 Treatment * Treatment should be implemented under medical supervision, and should include all sexual partners of the infected persons. * The drugs of choice for treatment are metronidazole ( 250 mg three times daily for 10 days) and tinidazole; therapy is usually highly successful. * The drugs of choice for treatment are metronidazole ( 250 mg three times daily for 10 days) and tinidazole; therapy is usually highly successful.

49 سوال؟ انتقال انگلها مستلزم وجود چه عواملی است؟ انتقال انگلها مستلزم وجود چه عواملی است؟ Pore-forming protein در پاتوزنزیس کدام آمیب نقش دارد Pore-forming protein در پاتوزنزیس کدام آمیب نقش دارد Reserervior Host;….……… ? Reserervior Host;….……… ? Paratenic Host;……… ? Paratenic Host;……… ? Dead-End Host……….? Dead-End Host……….?

50 شاداب باشيد


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