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1-2 Notes – The Cell (Part 1) Chapter 1, Lesson 2.

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Presentation on theme: "1-2 Notes – The Cell (Part 1) Chapter 1, Lesson 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 1-2 Notes – The Cell (Part 1) Chapter 1, Lesson 2

2 Cell Shape and Movement Cell shape and size is related to function

3 Cell Membrane Found in all cells Protective outer covering Selectively permeable – some things cannot enter a cell, and others cannot leave Flexible layer of phospholipids

4 Cell Membrane


6 Cell Wall Found in plants, fungi, some bacteria Outside the cell membrane Supports and protects the cell Very rigid Plant cell walls made mostly of cellulose, a carbohydrate

7 Cell Wall

8 Cell Appendages An appendage is something that helps you move (arm, leg, wing, flipper) Two kinds: flagella and cilia A flagellum (singular) is a tail-like appendage (can have one or more) Cilia are short, hairlike appendages, and occur in large numbers

9 Cell Appendages

10 Cytoplasm A thick fluid made of mostly water Structures and substances in cell are suspended in the cytoplasm

11 Cytoskeleton Network of fibers responsible for: Muscle contraction Cell division Cell movement Maintenance of cell shape

12 Cytoskeleton

13 Cell Organelles Structures suspended in the cytoplasm Have specific functions Not found in single-celled organisms

14 Nucleus Often called the control center of the cell Surrounded by a membrane Inside is the nucleolus, which helps make proteins

15 Nucleus Contains genetic material (nucleic acids) for making all the molecules of a cell Long chains of DNA are coiled into structures called chromosomes The same kind of organisms have the same number of chromosomes in each cell (humans have 46, cats have 38, dogs have 78, beans have 22, mosquitoes have 6)

16 Nucleus


18 Ribosomes Manufacture proteins Not membrane-bound Found in all cells Made in nucleolus and move into cytoplasm May be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

19 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Highly-folded membrane connected to the nucleus’ membrane 2 kinds: rough ER, smooth ER

20 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Rough ER has ribosomes on its surface, and makes proteins Smooth ER does not have ribosomes, and makes lipids

21 Mitochondrion (Plural = mitochondria) Food energy is transformed into usable energy here (needed by all living things) Sometimes called the “power house” of a cell Cells that require more energy (muscles) have more mitochondria

22 Chloroplasts Plants can make their own food in this organelle Use light energy to make food (sugar) Found in nearly all plants and some single- celled organisms Not found in animal cells

23 What is the function of a flagellum? Atransport nutrients Bmaintain cell shape Cstore molecules Dcell movement 1.2 The Cell

24 What do mitochondria use to make energy? Afood molecules Blight energy Cwater Dair 1.2 The Cell

25 Where is genetic information stored in plant and animal cells? Anucleus Bcell membrane Cribosomes Dchloroplasts SCI 1.c

26 Which organelle releases energy for cell functions? Anucleus Bchloroplasts Cribosomes Dmitochondria SCI 1.d

27 What organelle uses sunlight energy to make food? Acell wall Bchloroplasts Cmitochondria Dcentral vacuole SCI 1.d

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