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Cells By: Caleb Albert [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]

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Presentation on theme: "Cells By: Caleb Albert [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells By: Caleb Albert [Adopted from James Holden & Clint Tucker]

2 Quick lesson of-cell-theory of-cell-theory of-cell-theory of-cell-theory

3 The Cell Theory In 1855, a number of scientists put together a theory about cells… In 1855, a number of scientists put together a theory about cells… 1) All living things are composed of Cells. 2) Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. 3) New cells are produced from existing cells. Who were these scientists?

4 Anton van Leeuwenhoek Dutch businessman Dutch businessman One of the first people to use a simple microscope to study nature. One of the first people to use a simple microscope to study nature observed living things in pond water and made detailed drawings of each kind of organism observed living things in pond water and made detailed drawings of each kind of organism. He called these organisms animalcules. He called these organisms animalcules.

5 Robert Hooke English physicist used one of the first light microscopes to look at thin slices of plant tissues  a slice of CORK Called thousands of tiny chambers “cells,” because they reminded him of a monastery’s tiny rooms. this discovery motivated scientists to search for cells in other living things.

6 The Final Three 1838 – Mathias Schlieden found that all Plants are made of cells – Theodore Schwann found that Animals are also made up of cells 1855 – Rudolf Virchow found that “Where a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell.…” or cells come from cells

7 Basic Cell Structures Cell Membrane – thin, flexible semi permeable membrane around the cell; monitors what enters and exits the cell Cell Membrane – thin, flexible semi permeable membrane around the cell; monitors what enters and exits the cell Nucleus- a large structure that contains the cell’s genetic material and controls the cell’s activities Nucleus- a large structure that contains the cell’s genetic material and controls the cell’s activities Cytoplasm- material inside the cell membrane—but not including the nucleus Cytoplasm- material inside the cell membrane—but not including the nucleus The semi-fluid substance that fills the cytoplasm is called the cytosol The semi-fluid substance that fills the cytoplasm is called the cytosol

8 Test your knowledge… On your study notes, Label these three parts below

9 And the Answer is… Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus

10 Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Prokaryote - have cell membranes and cytoplasm but do not contain nuclei. Prokaryote - have cell membranes and cytoplasm but do not contain nuclei. Simple Cells Simple Cells All bacteria are prokaryotes. All bacteria are prokaryotes. Eukaryote- Contain nuclei. Also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and specialized organelles. Eukaryote- Contain nuclei. Also have a cell membrane, cytoplasm, and specialized organelles. Complex Cells Complex Cells All plants, animals, fungi, and many microorganisms, are eukaryotes. All plants, animals, fungi, and many microorganisms, are eukaryotes. Eukaryote cells are much larger than prokaryote cells Eukaryote cells are much larger than prokaryote cells

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12 Test Your Knowledge… Fill in this Venn Diagram using the pictures of prokaryotes/eukaryotes & your Notes Prokaryote Eukaryote

13 And the Answer is… Prokaryote Eukaryote No nucleus Simple Cells Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Complex Cells Specialized Organelles

14 STOP & THINK… STOP & THINK… 1. What three statements describe the cell theory? 1. What three statements describe the cell theory? 2. What is the main characteristic that distinguishes eukaryotes from prokaryotes? 3. Name two structures that all cells have.

15 Cell Structure & Organelles Organelles- specialized structure that performs important cellular functions within a eukaryotic cell

16 Cell Structure Cell Walls provide extra support and protection Cell Walls provide extra support and protection Plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi have Cell Walls Plants, bacteria, algae, and fungi have Cell Walls * In plants, cell walls are composed of cellulose * Animal Cells DO NOT DO NOT have have CELL WALLS

17 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain shape and is involved in cell movement. Contains 2 parts: Network of protein filaments that helps the cell maintain shape and is involved in cell movement. Contains 2 parts: Microfilaments – long, thin strands Microfilaments – long, thin strands that help a cell move and provide a that help a cell move and provide a tough framework for the cell tough framework for the cell Microtubules – hollow tubes Microtubules – hollow tubes by which organelles can move from by which organelles can move from one part of a cell to another one part of a cell to another

18 Nucleus Nucleus Stores hereditary info in the form of DNA Stores hereditary info in the form of DNA DNA is inside chromatin, a granular material that condenses into chromosomes during cell division DNA is inside chromatin, a granular material that condenses into chromosomes during cell division Houses a nucleolus – small, dense region within responsible for the assembly of ribosomes Houses a nucleolus – small, dense region within responsible for the assembly of ribosomes Surrounded by a nuclear envelope Surrounded by a nuclear envelope “The Control Center”

19 The Nucleus

20 Centrioles t iny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope. t iny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope. Play a role in cell division. Play a role in cell division.

21 Ribosomes Make proteins Make proteins Made up of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and protein Made up of rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and protein Can be free-roaming in cytoplasm or located on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Can be free-roaming in cytoplasm or located on the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

22 Endoplasmic Reticulum Organelle where components of cell membrane are made and proteins are modified Organelle where components of cell membrane are made and proteins are modified Rough E.R. Rough E.R. studded with ribosomes studded with ribosomes Either exports proteins from cell or sends them to the cytoplasm Either exports proteins from cell or sends them to the cytoplasm Smooth E.R. Smooth E.R. No ribosomes No ribosomes Helps in lipid production and breakdown of toxic substances Helps in lipid production and breakdown of toxic substances

23 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R.)

24 Golgi Apparatus Vesicles ( small transport sacs ) carry proteins from Rough E.R. to Golgi for processing/modification. Vesicles ( small transport sacs ) carry proteins from Rough E.R. to Golgi for processing/modification. Attaches carbohydrates and lipids to proteins, and the new proteins are “packaged” in new vesicles. Attaches carbohydrates and lipids to proteins, and the new proteins are “packaged” in new vesicles.

25 Lysosomes Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes Small organelles filled with digestive enzymes They can break down needed materials, used cell parts, pathogens, and even play a role in development They can break down needed materials, used cell parts, pathogens, and even play a role in development They destroy tissue to create fingers because our hands begin as solid structures! They destroy tissue to create fingers because our hands begin as solid structures! Lysosome Animation

26 Who am I? cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

27 Vacuole

28 Chloroplasts Found in plants, some algae, and some bacteria Found in plants, some algae, and some bacteria Converts the sun’s light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis Converts the sun’s light energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis Contains chlorophyll (green pigment) Contains chlorophyll (green pigment)

29 Mitochondria cell organelle that releases energy from stored food molecules. Involved in cellular respiration- turning carbohydrates into energy. Cells that need more energy have more mitochondria

30 Other Cell Structures Cilia (cilium): short hair-like projection; produces movement in many cells Cilia (cilium): short hair-like projection; produces movement in many cells Flagella (flagellum): whip-like structure on some cells that is used for movement Flagella (flagellum): whip-like structure on some cells that is used for movement Cilia Flagella

31 Test Your Knowledge – CHALLENGE!!!… Do we remember what each organelles job is? Do we remember what each organelles job is? Identify the Organelle – Word Matching Identify the Organelle – Word MatchingIdentify the Organelle – Word MatchingIdentify the Organelle – Word MatchingOR Identifying the Organelle – Picture Matching Identifying the Organelle – Picture Matching

32 So Think of the cell as a Factory… Walls and roof = cell membrane Walls and roof = cell membrane Additional supporting structures = microfilaments Additional supporting structures = microfilaments Forklifts/transportation within building = microtubules Forklifts/transportation within building = microtubules Management (sends info to factory floor) = nucleus Management (sends info to factory floor) = nucleus Workers (produce goods) = ribosomes on Rough ER Workers (produce goods) = ribosomes on Rough ER Staging and Shipping = Golgi Apparatus Staging and Shipping = Golgi Apparatus Energy = solar power plant (chloroplasts) and Energy = solar power plant (chloroplasts) and oil-burning furnace (mitochondria) oil-burning furnace (mitochondria)

33 Factory Part FunctionOrganelle Central OfficeManages activities, initiates production, controls activities of factory 1 Assembly LineAssembles raw materials to manufacture items2 Packaging & Shipping Packs products for distribution3 Conveyer BeltMoves product within the factory4 GeneratorProduces energy for the factory5 Storage areaStores materials for later use6 Collection centerBreaks down and recycles used parts7 DoorAllows for things to enter and leave the factory8 Bricks and SteelConstruction materials that keep the factory from collapsing 9 Trucks/ 18 Wheelers Move the factory when it needs to relocate10 Example II: The Cell Factory

34 Factory Part FunctionOrganelle Central OfficeManages activities, initiates production, controls activities of factory Nucleus Assembly LineAssembles raw materials to manufacture itemsRibosome Packaging & Shipping Packs products for distributionGolgi Bodies Conveyer BeltMoves product within the factoryEndoplasmic reticulum GeneratorProduces energy for the factoryMitochondrion Storage areaStores materials for later useVacuole Collection centerBreaks down and recycles used partsLysosome DoorAllows for things to enter and leave the factoryCell membrane Bricks and SteelConstruction materials that keep the factory from collapsing cytoskeleton Trucks/ 18 Wheelers Move the factory when it needs to relocatecentrioles Answers: The Cell Factory

35 So Where did these Eukaryotes come from? Mitochondria and Chloroplasts contain their own DNA genetic information separate from the cells DNA. Mitochondria and Chloroplasts contain their own DNA genetic information separate from the cells DNA. So, Scientists have done research and come up with a Theory… So, Scientists have done research and come up with a Theory… The ENDOSYMBIONT THEORY The ENDOSYMBIONT THEORY Let’s take a look at this evolution…

36 The Endosymbiont Theory The first eukaryotes may have formed from one bacteria engulfing another without killing it. The first eukaryotes may have formed from one bacteria engulfing another without killing it. Later a symbiotic relationship was formed Later a symbiotic relationship was formed

37 Stop and Think… Stop and Think… Are plant and animal cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? Are plant and animal cells prokaryotic or eukaryotic? How does the meaning of prokaryotic or eukaryotic help you answer this question? How does the meaning of prokaryotic or eukaryotic help you answer this question? Give one or two examples that help you answer this question. Give one or two examples that help you answer this question.

38 Plant Cells Cell wall located outside the cell membrane. Cell wall is made from cellulose fibers, and it is used for support & protection Cell wall located outside the cell membrane. Cell wall is made from cellulose fibers, and it is used for support & protection Contains one large vacuole that contains water. Vacuole full = plant is rigid. Vacuole loses water = plant wilts Contains one large vacuole that contains water. Vacuole full = plant is rigid. Vacuole loses water = plant wilts Chloroplasts = contain chlorophyll, which captures sunlight & converts it into energy Chloroplasts = contain chlorophyll, which captures sunlight & converts it into energy

39 Plant Cell Build a plant cell

40 Animal Cells Have no cell wall Have no cell wall NO chlorophyll NO chlorophyll CANNOT make their own food CANNOT make their own food

41 So Plant and Animal Cells are… Both eukaryotic cells- Both have nucleuses, organelles, cell membranes, cytoplasm

42 Plant and animal cell differences Plant Cells Plant Cells Cell wall Cell wall Chloroplasts Chloroplasts Large central vacuole Large central vacuole No centrioles No centrioles Animal Cells Have centrioles Have centrioles No cell wall No cell wall No chloroplasts No chloroplasts No large central vacuole No large central vacuole Construct a cell

43 Diversity of Life Unicellular organisms- A single-celled organism Unicellular organisms- A single-celled organism Unicellular organisms include both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unicellular organisms include both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. A prokaryotic unicellular organism A eukaryotic unicellular organism (paramecium) Contractile Vacuole

44 Multicellular organisms- organisms that have more than one cell working together. Have cell specialization Multicellular organisms- organisms that have more than one cell working together. Have cell specialization Cell specialization- specific roles for different types of cells Cell specialization- specific roles for different types of cells Diversity of Life Continued…

45 Levels of Organization Cells- the basic unit of life Cells- the basic unit of life Tissues- a group of similar cells that perform a particular function Tissues- a group of similar cells that perform a particular function Organs- many groups of tissues work together Organs- many groups of tissues work together Organ Systems- A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function Organ Systems- A group of organs that work together to perform a specific function Organism- An entire living being made up of organ systems Organism- An entire living being made up of organ systems

46 Test your Knowledge… Using the following terms, place the levels of organization in the correct order of the chart. -Stomach- Digestive System -Smooth muscle tissue-Muscle Cell ????

47 And the Answer is…

48 References Power point assistance & Design from Clint Tucker (compliments of Marti Newcomb- Thompson [PRHS]) and James Holden (MCHS) Power point assistance & Design from Clint Tucker (compliments of Marti Newcomb- Thompson [PRHS]) and James Holden (MCHS)Marti Newcomb- Thompson James Holden Marti Newcomb- Thompson James Holden Prentice Hall Biology Text = Miller & Levine Prentice Hall Biology Text = Miller & Levine Prentice Hall Biology Text = Miller & Levine Prentice Hall Biology Text = Miller & Levine Lysosome Animation: hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter5/animations.html Lysosome Animation: hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter5/animations.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter5/animations.htmlhttp://highered.mcgraw- hill.com/sites/ /student_view0/chapter5/animations.html Identify Organelle Word Matching: Identify Organelle Word Matching: Identify Organelle Picture Matching: online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP11403 Identify Organelle Picture Matching: online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP11403http://www.wisc- online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP11403http://www.wisc- online.com/objects/index_tj.asp?objID=AP11403 Design your Analogy: Design your Analogy: Endosymbiont Theory Animation: Endosymbiont Theory Animation: Build a plant cell: Build a plant cell: Construct plant/animal/prokaryote cell: ure.htm Construct plant/animal/prokaryote cell: ure.htm ure.htm ure.htm Med City Website: Med City Website: Organelle Quiz Review: Organelle Quiz Review: End of Lesson Organelle Quiz: End of Lesson Organelle Quiz:


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