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Wartime Memories: Institutionalizing American Wars, 1783-Present.

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2 Wartime Memories: Institutionalizing American Wars, 1783-Present

3 “War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things. The decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is much worse.”much John Stuart Mill

4 "God created war so that Americans would learn geography." Mark Twain

5 “War is not nice.” Barbara Bush

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7 generalizations, generalizations. generalizations

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9 Following a war, most Americans adopt a sort of “official” description of that conflict’s meaning within the larger context of our national life.

10 Although disagreements occur about a war’s true meaning, a majority consensus emerges very quickly.

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13 George Carlin (1992)

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15 AMERICA’S WARS

16 Definition of “War” for the U.S. Presidential or Congressional authorization of military force against an enemy

17 American Wars The American RevolutionFries’s Rebellion “The Hot Water War” Rebellion The Indian Wars The Barbary Wars Inter-State War (Rebellion) Inter-State War Shay's Rebellion The War of 1812 Rebellion Inter-State War The Whiskey Rebellion 1794War of Texas Independence Rebellion1838 Inter-State War Quasi-War With France Mexican-American War Inter-State War Inter-State War

18 American Wars (2) U.S. Slave RebellionsSamoan Civil War Civil War & Foreign Intervention “Bleeding Kansas” U.S. Philippine War Civil War (Kansas) Civil War & Foreign Intervention U.S. Civil War Boxer Rebellion Civil War1900 Rebellion & Foreign Intervention Hawaiian Revolution 1893The Moro Wars Rebellion & Foreign Interven tionCivil War & Foreign Intervention Spanish-American WarPanamanian Revolution Inter-State WarRevolution & Foreign Intervention

19 American Wars (3) The Cuban RevolutionWorld War I (U.S. involvement) Civil War & Foreign Interven-Inter-State War tion Russian Civil War The Banana Wars Civil War & Foreign Intervention Civil Wars & Foreign Interven- tionWorld War II (U.S. involvement) U.S. Occupation-Vera CruzInter-State War 1914 Inter-State WarThe Cold War Raid into MexicoInter-State War Inter-State War

20 American Wars (4) The Korean WarThe Mayaguez Rescue Operation May 1975 Inter-State WarInter-State Conflict The Vietnam WarIranian Hostage Rescue-”Desert One” April 1980 Civil War, Inter-State WarInter-State Conflict U.S. in LebanonU.S. Libya Conflict , 1986 Civil War & Foreign Interven-Inter-State War tion U.S. in Lebanon Dominican Republic War Civil War, Foreign Intervention, Civil War & Foreign Interven- Inter-State War tion

21 American Wars (5) Invasion of Grenada“No-Fly-Zone” War-Iraq Inter-State War The Tanker WarU.S. in Somalia Inter-State War & ForeignCivil War & Foreign Intervention Intervention U.S. (NATO) in Bosnia Invasion of Panama Civil War, Foreign Intervention & Inter-State War “Operation Desert Storm”Occupation of Haiti Inter-State WarForeign Intervention

22 American Wars (6) Strikes on Afghanistan, SudanAttack on World Trade Center & Pentagon August 1998September 2001(Response to)Terrorist Conflict “Desert Fox” (Iraq)Afghanistan War December Present Inter-State WarWar Against Terrorism Kosovo War“Operation Iraqi Freedom” Present Civil War, Foreign Interven-Inter-State War tion, Inter-State War Attack on U.S.S. Cole (Response to) October 2000 Terrorist Conflict

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24 “Republicans and Democrats prepare to battle over deficits and budget.”

25 “Packers and Steelers go to war in Super Bowl” “The battle will be won or lost in the trenches”

26 “War on Crime” “War on Poverty” “War on Terrorism” “War on Obesity” “War on Drugs” “War on Alcohol” “War on Smoking” 20 th -21 st Centuries American “Wars” “War on Abortion” “War on Gun Politics” “War on Homosexuality”

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30 But, if “War Is Not The Answer” Doesn’t it depend on what the question is?

31 American popular culture embraces war in both abstract and concrete ways, and always has. Why?

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33 Margaret Mitchell1 st edition

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35 “The committee finds, further, that the very quality which in civilian life tends to lead toward progressive civilization, namely the improvements of machinery, has been used by the munitions makers to scare nations into a continued frantic expenditure for the latest improvements in devices of warfare.... Report of the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry (The Nye Report) 1936 While the evidence before this committee does not show that wars have been started solely because of the activities of munitions makers and their agents,... the committee finds it to be against the peace of the world for selfishly interested organizations to be left free to goad and frighten nations into military activity.”

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37 1. How do reasons for going to war affect our beliefs about who we are? 2. Which actions during a war most contribute to historical memories of that war? 3. In what ways do war’s outcomes underscore or challenge our historical beliefs? 4. What effect does historical distance have on our memories of a war? War and Historical Memory—4 Questions

38 American popular culture embraces war in both abstract and concrete ways, and always has. Why?

39 Antebellum U.S.Romanticism Post-Civil WarRealism Post-World War IModernism Post-World War IIPost-Modernism TIME PERIODLITERARY GENRE Wars mark the boundaries of American literary history

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41 MANUFACTURING MEANING FROM THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

42 History of the Rise, Progress, and Termination of the American Revolution (3 vols., 1805) Mercy Otis Warren The First Respected History of the Revolution

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44 Mason “Parson” Weems George Washington (as pictured in Weems’ biography) The First American Hero

45 Patrick HenryJames Otis Others Join the Pantheon

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47 THE ADVENT OF THE “BEST-SELLER”

48 Stephen Crane First edition, 1895

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50 Paul Leicester Ford First edition, 1899

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52 Thomas Hardy, British poet and novelist, “My argument is that War makes rattling good history, but Peace is poor reading.”

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