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South Asia. India Pakistan Bangladesh Maldives Sri Lanka NepalBhutan Hindu Islam Buddhism South Asia by majority religion.

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Presentation on theme: "South Asia. India Pakistan Bangladesh Maldives Sri Lanka NepalBhutan Hindu Islam Buddhism South Asia by majority religion."— Presentation transcript:

1 South Asia

2 India Pakistan Bangladesh Maldives Sri Lanka NepalBhutan Hindu Islam Buddhism South Asia by majority religion

3 Introduction  Geopolitical tension  religious division  Hindu (India)  Muslim (Pakistan)  Demographic concerns  high natural growth  High population density  Limited resource bases  Less connected to the global economy  Slow economic growth  Inward orientation

4 Environmental Geography Diverse Landscapes, from Tropical Islands to Mountain Rim

5 The Four Subregions of South Asia Peninsular India The Southern Islands Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Mountains of the North

6  Includes the world’s highest mountain  Produced by the collision between tectonic plates  seismically active Mt. Everest

7 Indus-Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands Indus R. Ganges R. Brahmaputra R.  Created by three major river systems  Population core areas

8 Peninsular India Deccan Plateau Western Ghats Eastern Ghats  Continuous Western Ghats  narrow western coastal plains  Discontinuous Eastern Ghats  broad eastern coastal plains  high population densities

9 The Southern Islands Sri Lanka: Mountains in the southern interior ringed by extensive coastal plains Maldives: Flat and low coral atolls

10 Monsoon rain – June in Mumbai  During the summer monsoon, Mumbai receives more than 70 inches of rain in just three months

11 South Asia’s Climates  Most of South Asia has three distinct seasons  June – Oct.: warm and rainy season  Nov. – Feb: cool and dry season  Match – May: hot period  What is the major factor of this distinct season? Monsoon (Distinct seasonal change of wind direction)

12 Monsoons in South Asia SummerWinter Southwest monsoonNortheast monsoon  dry  wet

13 Orographic rainfall  wet Rain-shadow effect  dry Orographic rainfall results from the uplifting and cooling of moist monsoon winds over high mountains Orographic rainfall results from the uplifting and cooling of moist monsoon winds over high mountains 451 inches 10 inches Rainfall varies greatly from place to place Ganges Delta  rice; Punjab  wheat Rainfall varies greatly from place to place Ganges Delta  rice; Punjab  wheat

14 Flooding in Bangladesh High precipitationHigh precipitation Low-lying landLow-lying land CycloneCyclone Ganges Delta Natural condition Man-made condition High population densityHigh population density Deforestation in the river headwaterDeforestation in the river headwater

15 Population and Settlement The Demographic Dilemma

16  Soon will become the world’s most populous region  High natural growth  Fertility patterns vary by countries  family planning  India, Bangladesh vs. Pakistan  One of the least urbanized regions in the world

17 Population distribution  Fertile soils  Dependable water supplies

18  Pull factor: rural-to-urban migration  Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta  Push factor: refugees  Afghanistan, Kashmir, Burma, Sri Lanka

19 Crop zones in South AsiaPunjab Rice  wet, fertile Wheat  semiarid, fertile Millet, Sorghum  less fertile

20 Cattle in India  India has the world’s largest cattle population  They don’t produce meat due to Hinduism  Rather, produce milk as major sources of protein  Also used for plowing and pulling carts

21 Mumbai Major cities in South AsiaDelhi Calcutta Dhaka Islamabad Karachi Lahore

22  India  Mumbai: financial center and media capital of India  Delhi: political capital (former Muslim capital, colonial capital)  Calcutta: trading center, declined after partition (1947)  Pakistan  Karachi: commercial core  Islamabad: forward capital – religious, and geopolitical  Bangladesh  Dhaka: global center for clothing, and shoe manufacturing

23 Overurbanization in South Asia Mumbai hutments

24 Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Common Heritage Rent by Religious Rivalries

25  Long united by Hinduism  Caste System  Arrival of Islam  Religious rivalries between Hindu and Muslim  British imperialism  Use of English due to multilingualism

26 Historic overview of South Asia 3000 B.C.800 B.C. Indus Valley Civilization Ganges Valley Civilization 1000 Muslim rules Buddhism Islam Invasion of Indo-Aryan 2000 B.C.1600 A.D. Hinduism Caste System Sikhism Jainism

27 Religious diversity in South Asia  Hinduism (1500 B.C.~)  Indus valley civilization + Indo-Aryan religion  Persist to present day (eg. Caste System); main religion in India  Buddhism, Jainism (500 B.C.~)  Challenge to Hinduism orthodoxy  Islam (1000 A.D.~)  Muslim rule in the north or trade network in the south  Active conversion from Hindus to Islam particularly in northwest (Pakistan) and northeast (Bangladesh)  Sikhism (1400 A.D. ~)  Hinduism + Islam in Punjab(modern bnd b/w. India and Pakistan)

28  Hinduism  India, S Nepal  Islam  Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives  15% of India  Sikhism: Punjab  Buddhism  Sri Lanka, Bhutan, NE Kashmir, N Nepal  Jainism: Gujarat  Christian: Goa, NE India Geographies of Religion Sikhism Jainism Muslim rule Trade networks of the Arabian Sea Goa Northeast tribal area

29 Linguistic diversity in South Asia  Indo-European (north)  Iranian  Baluchi, Pashtun  western Pakistan, Afghanistan  Indo-Aryan  Closely associated with Indian states  Bengali, Punjabi  Indian states with Bangladesh, eastern Pakistan  Singhalese, Divehi  Sri Lanka, Maldives  Dravidian (south)  Confined to southern India

30 Geographies of Language Indo-European north Dravidian south

31 Linguistic Dilemmas  So many different languages in one country  India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka  India has 15 official languages with no unified national language  Role of media  Hindi is spreading through popular media  Role of English  Main integrating language of India

32 South Asian global diaspora British India: settlements in British colonies Contemporary India: migrated into U.S. and North America

33 Geopolitical Framework A Deeply Divided Region

34  British rule (mid 18c ~ mid 20c)  Independence and partition  Separation of Pakistan from India (1947)  Separation of Bangladesh from East Pakistan (1971)  Continuing tension between Pakistan and India  Intensified by the nuclear capabilities of both

35 Muslim Hindu Portuguese Dutch Mughal Empire (mid 16c ~ mid 19c)

36 British Conquest (mid 18c ~ mid 20c) After Sepoy Rebellion (1856), South Asia was ruled directly by the British government During chaotic waning years of the Mughal Empire (18c), the British East India Company began to monopolize trade

37 Independence and Partition The British withdrew from South Asia in 1947 The region was divided into two countries: a Hindu- majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan (1947) Bangladesh was separated from East Pakistan (1971)

38 Conflicts in Kashmir Before the partition, this regions of predominantly Muslim population was ruled by a Hindu maharaja Some Kashmirs wish to to join Pakistan while others argue for an independent state Some Kashmirs wish to to join Pakistan while others argue for an independent state  Hostility between Pakistan and India

39 Separatism in Punjab region Sikh-majority Punjab Hindu-majority Haryana Sikh temple at Amritsar  Hostility between the Sikh majority and the Indian government Sikh leaders strived for autonomy Sikh leaders strived for autonomy

40 Civil war in Sri Lanka Hindu Tamils Buddhist Singhalese  Religious and linguistic differences : support political autonomy : favor unitary government

41 Global implication of the tension between India and Pakistan  During Cold War  Pakistan – U.S.  India –? Soviet Union  After 1991  Pakistan – China  India  China’s animosity toward India  Pakistan – Taliban Afghanistan  After 9/11  Pakistan – U.S.  Taliban Afghanistan  But anti-Americanism in Pakistan needs to be addressed

42 Economic and Social Development Burdened by Poverty

43 South Asian Poverty  Disparity between social classes  World-class scientific and technological accomplishments  Largest undernourished and malnourished people  Developmental contradictions in economic history  Land of great riches until the early modern period  Exploitation by external forces  Central Asian, the British

44  The poorest world region along with Sub-Saharan Africa  Pessimism: undercut by large and growing population  Optimism: globally interconnected IT industry

45 The Himalayan countries  Disadvantaged by their rugged terrain and remote locations  Bhutan  Isolationist policy  Nepal  Closely integrated with the Indian economy  Relies heavily on international tourism

46 Bangladesh  Bad news  Burdened by massive population, environmental degradation, and colonial legacy  Devastating effect of partition (1947)  Increasingly uncompetitive Jute market  Good news  Competitive in textile manufacture  low wage rate  Falling birthrate  economic growth begins to catch up with its population growth

47 Pakistan  Current potential  Productive agricultural sector (eg. Punjab)  Large textile industry  huge cotton crop  Export of surgical implements  legacy of sword-making center  Future potential  Burdened by high level of defense spending  Powerful landlord class with no benefit for economy  Failure to develop IT industry (cf. India)

48 Sri Lanka and the Maldives  Sri Lanka  Specialization in textiles and tea  Perennial civil war overshadows potentials such as strategic location, and high levels of education  Maldives  Revenues from fishing and international tourism

49 Economic division in India Lesser developed areas Centers of economic growth Green Revolution Merchants Remittance India’s economic pacesetter High-tech sector Subsistence economy Social conservatism Political corruption Socialist economic policy

50 Major industrial areas

51 Economic policy after independence  Mixed socialist-capitalist system by the 1980s  Economic nationalism  Self-sufficiency policy  Liberalization of economy since the early 1990s  Privatization of state-owned industries  Deregulation  Internationalization

52 Global linkages

53  High levels of social welfare in the south  Sri Lanka, Maldives, southwestern India  Low levels of social welfare in the north  Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, northern India

54 The status of women  Women has a very low social position in both the Hindu and Muslim traditions  Women in the Hindu tradition  Excluded from inheriting land, early marriage, dowry, not allowed to remarry  Women has a high social position in southern India and Sri Lanka  Inheritance through the female line in Kerala

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