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Part I: Petrine Era (2). L03 Petrine State-Building Reforms Supreme Power Administration Finances Military Church.

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Presentation on theme: "Part I: Petrine Era (2). L03 Petrine State-Building Reforms Supreme Power Administration Finances Military Church."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part I: Petrine Era (2)

2 L03 Petrine State-Building Reforms Supreme Power Administration Finances Military Church

3 I. Main Themes 1.Systematization, rationalization 2.Petrine, not Peter’s, reforms 3.Multiple Western models, but adapted 4.Shifting focus: mil/financial to new areas 5.Upgrading, not integrating, the Church 6.Uneven impact

4 II. Supreme Power 1.Personal absolutism: a. Theorize: Truth of the Monarch’s Will b. Romanize c. Personalize d. Bureaucratize

5 II. Supreme Power 2. The Missing Cabinet a. Demise of the Boyar Duma b. 1699: “Near Duma” (blizhniaia duma) c. 1708: “Consilium of Ministers”

6 II. Supreme Power 3. Senate a. Why established? b. Subsequent elevation c. Supreme administrative organ d. Post-Petrine: Senate role, claims

7 Senate (St. Petersburg)

8 Petrine Senate (1912 painting)

9 Senate Chamber 1993

10 Senate Interior (Archive)

11 III. Administration 1.Early measures: a.1699: Urban and provincial reform b.Creating, abolishing prikazy

12 III. Administration 2. 1708-15: Decentralization a.17 th Century: Prefects (voevoda) b.Guberniia reform 1708 c.Dolia (fractions), 1711-15

13 III. Administration 3. Collegial reform, 1715-1718 a. Foreign models b. Initial system (1717) c. Modifications d. Durability Leibniz to Peter: “There cannot be good administration except with colleges; their mechanism is like that of watches, whose wheels mutually keep each other in movement.”

14 Colleges Original 9 (1717)Additional (by 1721) Foreign RelationsManufacturing College State RevenuesSpiritual College (Synod) State Expenditures State Control Justice Army Admiralty Commerce Extractive Industry

15 Missing Units Interior Agriculture Education Court

16 III. Administration 4.Provincial Reform (1718) a. Model and enactment b. Structure c. Shortcomings

17 III. Administration 5. Judiciary a. Antecedents b. Law: proliferation, failure to codify c. Political police d. Judicial reform (1717-1719)

18 III. Administration 6. Civil Service a. Key problems b. Building a bureaucratic class c. Table of Ranks (1722)

19 Menshikov

20 Boris I. Kurbatov

21 Iaguzhinskii: Procurator-General

22 IV. Finances 1.Emergency measures: debasement, special levies, trade monopolies, tariffs 2.Household tax: problem of “population decline” 3.Poll tax (1718) 4.Impact of poll tax system 5.Petrine state budget

23 Population “Loss” 1678-1710 154,000 Households (19.5%) vanish. Reasons from reports on 19,000: 37%Landlord, state exactions 20%Conscription 1%Brigandage 42%Natural causes (death, pestilence)

24 Impact of Poll Tax 1.Social: freezes social order (males) 2.Bifurcation 3.Amalgamation 4.Immiseration 5.Collective barrier to flight 6.Religious resistance: Old Believers

25 State Budget YearNominal Amount Adjusted for Inflation 16801.5 million rubles 17248.5 million rubles 4.5 million rubles

26 V. Military 1.Problems: a.Ineffective b.Unreliable c.Evasion d.weak administration

27 V. Military 2. Reforms a. Recruitment b. Structure (shtat of 1711) c. Logistics, provisioning d. Military Code (1716) e. Administration: Military Prikaz (1701) Military Chancellery (1706) Military College (1718)

28 V. Military 3. Officer Corps a. Key problems b. Recruiting c. Training d. Russifying 1711: reduce by 1/3 1714: dismiss unfit 1720: Ban on new foreign hires 1722: Foreigners beneath Russian in rank

29 V. Military 4. Navy a. Costs b. Military role 1705 expenditures Fleet: 175,000 rubles Artillery: 263,000 rubles Administration: 12,166 rubles Education: 3,786 rubles

30 V. Military 5. Impact of Petrine military reforms a. Regularization paradigm b. Military experience of elites c. Education d. Social and economic costs

31 VI. Church Reform 1.Why reform? Politics, finances, culture, efficiency 2.Finances: De facto secularization (Monastery prikaz, 1701-24) 3.Church Role: auxiliary servitor 4.Synodal reform (1718-1721) 5.“Spiritual Command”

32 Patriarch Adrian

33 Stefan Iavorskii

34 Feofan Prokopovich

35 VII. Conclusions 1.Growing complexity, deliberation of reform 2.Shortcomings: lack of human, material resources 3.Indigenize, not westernize 4.Military paradigm 5.Political culture: identity of ruler, elites

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