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Presentation on theme: "DR. DALE ANDERSON URBAN AND HOUSING ISSUES IN CANADA."— Presentation transcript:


2 PRESENTATION OVERVIEW Canada: Context Government and Shared Responsibilities Urbanism and Key Urban Issues General Housing Concepts Housing in British Columbia Housing Policy in B.C.


4 Late 15 th century, British and French colonies on Atlantic coast Eventually, United Kingdom gained territories British North American Act of 1867 – three colonies formed Dominion of Canada More colonies added to the self- governing dominion 1931 Britain granted Canada full independence 1982 – last ties dissolved Aboriginal peoples were living in these colonies when Canada formed – still present today CONTEXT: HISTORY

5 10 provinces 3 territories 10 million square km (second largest country by area) 35 million people Border shared with United States (and France) Vast majority of population live within 200 km of USA Highly multicultural, especially major metropolitan areas CANADA TODAY

6 Democratic constitutional monarchy Head of State: Queen Elizabeth II Head of Government: Elected Prime Minister Federal government three branches Executive Legislative Judicial Federal, and provincial /territorial governments share responsibilities Queen has representatives in Canada GOVERNMENT

7 SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES Federal Government Areas of law listed in the Constitution Act, 1867 Generally affect the whole country Sources of Revenue: Income tax, sales tax, corporate tax Areas of Responsibility National defence Foreign affairs Employment insurance Banking Federal taxes Post office Fisheries Shipping, railways, telephones and pipelines Aboriginal lands and rights criminal law

8 SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES Provincial Government Areas of law listed in the Constitution Act, 1867 Generally affect individual provinces Sources of Revenue: Income tax, sales tax, corporate taxes Areas of Responsibility Education Health care Some natural resources Road regulations Hospitals Federal Prisons Marriage Property and civil rights Agriculture and immigration shared with federal

9 SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES Municipal Government “Creatures of the provinces” Powers as granted by province Property taxes Areas of Responsibility Emergency Services (police, fire, ambulance) Local roads and infrastructure Water, sewer Community centres, libraries, swimming pools = typically

10 SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES First Nations Changing status Band councils Sources of Revenue: varies – primarily federal government Areas of Responsibility Changing On reserve = federal responsibility Off reserve = provincial responsibility


12 URBANISM TODAY About 80% urban 10 million in three metropolitan areas: Toronto - 5M Montreal - 3.5M Vancouver - 2M

13 OTHER MAJOR URBAN CENTRES RankMetro AreaPop Toronto, Ontario5,583,064 2 Montreal, Quebec3,824,221 3 Vancouver, British Columbia2,313,328 4 Ottawa-Gatineau, Ontario and Quebec1,236,324 5 Calgary, Alberta1,214,839 6 Edmonton, Alberta1,159,869 7 Quebec City, Quebec765,706 8 Winnipeg, Manitoba730,018 9 Hamilton/Burlington, Ontario721, Kitchener, Cambridge, Waterloo, Ontario477, London, Ontario474, Saint Catherine’s Niagara, Ontario392, Halifax, Nova Scotia390, Oshawa, Ontario356, Victoria, British Columbia344,615 TOTAL19,983,672

14 URBAN ISSUES Major Issues Urban sprawl Municipal infrastructure: maintaining, renewing and costs of doing so Housing: lack, affordability Public transit and transportation Climate change Environmental quality Immigration Paradox Very high per capita income High ranking on Human Development Index High results for education, government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom

15 HOUSING IN CANADA Features Market: ownership or rental Social housing – rental High homeownership rates historically (67-70%) Homeownership increasing over past decades* Major changes by federal government after WWII Issues Affordability Rental: Lack of new, quality of stock Past development patterns and reliance on cars Homeownership vs rental patterns changing Energy and water efficiency and sustainability – compact communities

16 Partnering in social housing Funding – e.g., early stages of affordable housing project Financial assistance such as First-time Home Buyers Tax Credit or Home Buyers Plan (use funds from retirement savings) Providing mortgage insurance (<20% down payment) Research on the housing market via Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Exemptions from capital gains tax for principal residence Affordability Examples SHARED RESPONSIBILITY: FEDERAL

17 Regulation of real estate development and marketing Home warranty insurance Landlord-tenant relations Overseeing land use planning and development finance Funding public transit Funding social housing programs and projects Providing targeted rent supplements Homeowner support – e.g., property-tax support, property tax deferment programs, first-time home buyers grant Home adaptations for independence Seniors Home Renovation Tax Credit Building code for B.C. – example: options for secondary suites Developing uniform technical standards that simplify building code compliance Affordability Examples SHARED RESPONSIBILITY: PROVINCE

18 Regional growth strategies and community and neighbourhood plans – support affordable housing Housing friendly regulatory environment (e.g., allowing secondary suites, density, good transit corridors, etc.) Prezoning land Property tax incentives for affordable housing Streamlining development approval processes Reducing permitting fees and development cost charges Affordability Examples SHARED RESPONSIBILITY: MUNICIPAL

19 HOUSING CONCEPTS Core Housing Need Adequate (repairs) Suitable (size) Affordable (<30% income)

20 HOUSING IN B.C. Key Features Private market provides most housing (95%) Social/subsidized housing (5%) Ownership and rental Single detached housing predominates Issues Affordability becoming increasing concern Homelessness Large urban/industrial centres Supply, affordability, quality Sustainability features of building code

21 HOUSING AFFORDABILITY IN BC City of Vancouver Single detached home ~ $1 million CDN Average household income ~ $57,000 Renters: ~ 52% City of Victoria Single detached home ~ $750,000 CDN Average household income ~ $38,000 Renters ~60%

22 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Housing Matters B.C. Provincial housing policy document Latest update 2014 Main policy document Implementation: BC Housing and partners Philosophy of partnerships Rent Control Rent control features:  Increase of inflation + 2%  Deregulation between tenancies  Above-guideline increases possible Manufactured home parks – slight differences

23 HOUSING CONTINUUM/ HOUSING SPECTRUM TEMPORARY   PERMANENT Emergency Shelters Transitional Housing Supported Housing Assisted Living Non-market Rental (Social Housing) Rental Assistance in Private Market Market Rental (Purpose Built) Secondary Rental (Condos, Suites) Ownership – Strata Ownership – Non- Strata  RENTAL   OWNED  MORE  GOVERNMENT SUPPORT  LESS

24 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 1 Stable housing with integrated supports for those facing homelessness Goals Increased housing supply for the homeless Homeless have improved access, choice and stability in social housing and private rental market

25 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 2 B.C.’s most vulnerable citizens receive priority for assistance Frail seniors, mental illness, physical disability, drug/alcohol addictions, women and children fleeing violence, homeless and at risk of homelessness Goals Manage social housing stock to ensure its stability and maximum potential

26 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 3 Aboriginal housing need is addressed through a strong Aboriginal housing sector Off-reserve housing Aboriginals overrepresented in homelessness, core housing need Goals A strong, self-reliant Aboriginal housing sector Through: Devolution of responsibility

27 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 4 Low- to moderate- income households have improved access to affordable and stable rental housing Goals Increased supply, choice and improved accessibility of rental housing for low/moderate income households and vulnerable populations Streamlined systems for landlords and tenants

28 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 5 Homeownership continues to be a sound option for British Columbians Goals Effective systems that support consumer confidence Improved home inspector licensing

29 HOUSING POLICY IN B.C. Strategy 6 B.C.’s governance framework for housing, building and technical equipment safety is clear, effective and balanced Goals Safety risks are identified and managed properly Safety, economic and social interests are recognized, balanced and managed appropriately

30 HOUSING FIRST STRATEGY Housing First Strategy Shift in provision of housing to needy populations Formerly: stabilize life, then eligible for housing Housing First: No barriers to housing, provide supports At Home/Chez Soi Study Housing First effective strategy $10 investment in housing services average savings of $9.60 for high needs participants and $3.42 for moderate needs


32 PROVINCIAL PLAYERS Example BC Housing HPO Real Estate Sector Builders Business New home warranty program


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