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Translation in the Legal Fields Session 2 Lexical Features of the Legal Genre.

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Presentation on theme: "Translation in the Legal Fields Session 2 Lexical Features of the Legal Genre."— Presentation transcript:

1 Translation in the Legal Fields Session 2 Lexical Features of the Legal Genre

2 General characteristics of the legal genre 1.Accuracy 2.Simplicity 3.Clarity

3 General characteristics of the legal genre 4. Legal language is far from being spontaneous. It is often described as a “visual language” because it is written to be read thoroughly rather than spoken.

4 General characteristics of the legal genre 5. The words used have distinct agreed-upon meanings; therefore, legal documents sometimes begin with a list of definitions to avoid misunderstanding. Example: Copyright Law of the United States of America

5 General characteristics of the legal genre 6. Sentences are long because a sentence has to include all relevant elements in it so that misuse or confusion is avoided.

6 General characteristics of the legal genre 7. Punctuation marks are kept to a minimum, basically because such marks can be added or deleted easily and thus can change the meaning in a document.

7 General characteristics of the legal genre 8. Legal documents are divided into Parts, Sections, Chapters (Acts), Items, etc. in order to obtain more clarity. Example: Title 17 of the United States Code Circular 92 Chapter 1

8 General characteristics of the legal genre 9. Initials of some words are capitalized in order to restrict their meaning to that mentioned earlier in the document. Example: “The Life Insured shall pay to the Insurance Society every subsequent premium in due time.”

9 Lexical Features of the Legal Genre 1.Use of “Shall” “Shall” is used to express obligation, so the following verb should be translated into the present rather than the future tense. Examples: Amoco shall be exempted from all custom duties. تعفى أموكو من كل الرسوم الجمركية

10 The Life Insured shall pay to the Insurance Society every subsequent premium in due time. يدفع الشخص المؤمن عليه إلى شركة التأمين كل قسط تال في موعده المستحق.

11 Translate the following sentences: يعقد الاجتماع في باريس The Hirer shall be liable for any damage caused to the Owner

12 2. Use of “may” “May” and “may not” are translated into يجوز and لا يجوز. Example: The Minister of Petroleum may enter into concession agreements with foreign companies for petroleum exploration يجوز لوزير البترول أن يبرم اتفاقيات امتياز مع شركات أجنبية للبحث عن البترول

13 Translate the following sentences: يجوز للأمم المتحدة أن تحتفظ بأموال أو ذهب أو عملة من أي نوع The landlord may enter the dwelling without Tenant’s consent in case of emergency

14 3. Use of combinations of “here”, “there”, “where” and preposition-like words to convey a specific meaning. Examples: 1. hereto, hereby, hereunder, hereof, herewith, herein, hereafter, hereinabove, etc. “Here” means “This document” -Both parties hereby agree بموجب هذا العقد -Mr. X hereinafter referred to as المشار إليه فيما بعد

15 2. Thereto, thereof, thereby, therewith, therefore, therein, etc. “There” means a person, thing or situation mentioned right before it. The Insurance Society or any duly authorized collector thereof. أو أي محصل تابع لها Duties contained therein الواجبات الواردة فيه

16 3. Whereof, whereby, etc. “Where” means “mentioned above” Example: In witness whereof, the parties have signed as of the date first set forth above. بناء على ما سبق

17 4. Use of couplings and synonyms means using two words to express the same meaning Examples: -Made and signed تحرر -Terms and conditions شروط -By and between بين -True and correct صحيح -Breaking and entering السطو على الممتلكات -Goods and chattels منقولات

18 -Each and every كل -Free and clear of خال من Arabic Couplings and synonyms: -Null and void ملغى وباطل -Fraud and deceit غش وخداع -Acknowledge and confess يقر ويعترف

19 Translate the following sentence: The period of this contract shall be two years, as of the date of arrival of the Second Party in the house of the First Party and may be renewed upon the desire of both parties.

20 5. Avoidance of anaphoric devices Anaphoric devices include Personal Pronouns (he, she, etc.), Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, etc.), and “to do” constructions (e.g. He rents a car and so does his brother) because such devices can lead to confusion.

21 6. Repetition of a word instead of using a pronoun. Example: The Lessee shall pay to the Lessor at the office of the Lessor Instead of.. The Lessee shall pay to the Lessor at his office * يدفع المستأجر إلى المؤجر في مكتب المؤجر

22 Example of a wrong formulation of an item: « إذا وفق العامل إلى اختراع جديد في أثناء خدمة رب العمل فلا يكون لهذا أي حق في ذلك الاختراع » المادة 688 من القانون المدني تحت عنوان ( عقد العمل في القانون المدني )

23 7. Use of (“which”+ a repeated word) to avoid a wrong interpretation of that word Example: Any dispute arising between Aramco and Atco shall be settled by arbitration, which arbitration shall take place at the Department of Contracts in Aramco. أي نزاع ينشأ بين أرامكو وأتكو يتم الفصل فيه عن طريق التحكيم على أن يتم التحكيم بإدارة العقود في أرامكو.

24 8. Use of “said”, “such”, “the same”. Examples: If the contractor incurs any further costs …, then the employer shall take such costs into consideration. في حالة تحمل المقاول أية تكاليف أخرى... يضع صاحب العمل هذه التكاليف في الاعتبار.

25 The said party of the second part hereby agrees to purchase said premises at said consideration of … $ and to pay the same as follows: … يوافق الطرف الثاني بموجب هذا العقد على شراء العقار المذكور بالمبلغ المذكور وهو... وأن يدفع هذا المبلغ كما يلي :...

26 9. Avoidance of the 3 rd person singular pronouns (he, she) and replacing them with the neutral pronoun (it). Example: Borrower shall comply with all of its covenants to Bank set forth in and arising from the loan agreement. يلتزم المقترض بكل تعهداته للبنك الموضحة في اتفاقية القرض والناشئة عنها

27 10. Use of a proviso clause that begins with “provided that” بشرط أن، على أن، شريطة أن Example: Landlord shall have the right, subject to Tenant’s consent, to enter the dwelling unit to inspect the premises provided that landlord may enter the dwelling without tenant’s consent in case of emergency.

28 يحق للمالك بشرط موافقة المستأجر دخول الوحدة السكنية لمعاينة العقار على أنه يجوز للمالك دخول السكن بدون موافقة المستأجر في حالة الطوارئ.

29 11. Use of archaic words in order to sound formal and classic. Example: Witnesseth Hereof, therein, etc. Aforementioned, abovesaid, سابق الذكر Forthwith في الحال Duly authorized مفوض تفويضا صحيحا

30 12. Use of loan words Examples from French: contract, proposal, schedule, etc. Examples from Latin: appendix, annex, addendum, etc.

31 Translate the following: Noncompliance by Tenant: If there is a material noncompliance by Tenant with the rental agreement or a noncompliance with Paragraph 7 materially affecting health and safety, Landlord may deliver a written notice to Tenant specifying the acts and omissions constituting the breach and that the rental agreement will terminate upon a date not less than thirty days after receipt of the notice if the breach is not remedied in fourteen days.

32 عدم التزام المستأجر : في حالة حدوث عدم التزام مادي من جانب المستأجر بهذا الاتفاق أو عدم التزام بالفقرة 7 يؤثر بشكل ملموس على الصحة والسلامة يجوز للمالك إعطاء إخطار كتابي إلى المستأجر يحدد الأعمال وأوجه التقصير التي تشكل هذه المخالفة، ويحدد أن العقد سينتهي في موعد لا يقل عن ثلاثين يوما من تاريخ استلام الإخطار إذا لم يتم معالجة هذه المخالفة في غضون أربعة عشر يوما.


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