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Christian Cooper AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design Week 1, Lecture 2 Sticks & Stones AKA The History of Gaming, part I - the history of traditional.

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Presentation on theme: "Christian Cooper AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design Week 1, Lecture 2 Sticks & Stones AKA The History of Gaming, part I - the history of traditional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Christian Cooper AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design Week 1, Lecture 2 Sticks & Stones AKA The History of Gaming, part I - the history of traditional games, from ancient times to the digital age.

2 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 2 Quotations on play “Man only plays when in the full meaning of the word he is a man, and he is only completely a man when he plays.” (Friedrich von Schiller) “To stimulate creativity, one must develop the childlike inclination for play and the childlike desire for recognition.” (Albert Einstein)

3 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 3 Why study the history of games? “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” (George Santayana) In order to design new* games, we need to know a little about the old ones. This is the first of two parts concerning game history. –This week is concerned with the historical development of traditional gaming. –Next week: The history of video games.

4 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 4 History of games So how long have we engaged in play? –And how long have we played games? 100 years? 1,000 years? How old are computer games? How old are playing cards? How old is chess? How old is Go…?

5 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 5 Royal Game of Ur (2,600BC) The Royal tombs at Ur were excavated by C. Leonard Woolley in the 1920’s. He found what appeared to be an ancient sumerian board game. (Image is a copy of the original which can be found in the British Museum Image from http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Royal-Game-Ur.htm )

6 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 6 Senet Egypt, 4th Century BC. (Image from http://home.t-online.de/home/Markus.Kantz/frsein.htm )

7 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 7 Senet “The game of thirty squares.” Found in many ancient Egyptian archaeological sites. The Romans played a game called Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum (the game of 12 lines) - a fore-runner of Backgammon, and believed to be derived from Senet.

8 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 8 Wei-qi China, 2000BC. Imported by Japan in 600AD! –Becomes known as Go. (Image from http://www.cit.gu.edu.au/~anthony/rooms/library/go/board-game12.gif )

9 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 9 Mancala http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Mancala.htm Mancala is an arabic word meaning “to transfer.” This (and the many variations of this) is played in nearly every African country. –Can be played with a board and counters. –Or alternatively with holes in the ground and pebbles. Possibly appeared in Egypt, using boards and counters used for accounting.

10 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 10 Mancala (Image from http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Mancala.htm )

11 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 11 Morris http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Nine-Mens-Morris.htm Three Men’s Morris is an ancient game. –A board was found cut into the temple at Kurna, Egypt - could date back as far as 1,500BC (but may be younger). –It is essentially the same game as the modern noughts & crosses. An extension to this game, Nine Men’s Morris dates from the same time, and was widely played in England in the middle ages.

12 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 12 Dice Cubical dice appear in 700BC. (Image from http://www.traipse.com/ray_tracer/large/dice.jpg )

13 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 13 Alquerque Egypt, 600BC. Played on a 5x5 Board. A variant, Fierges, was played in France during the 1100’s (AD), and was played on a Chess board. This is later renamed dames. Jeu Force (circa 1535) - identical to modern draughts.

14 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 14 Pachisi http://www.tradgames.org.uk/games/Pachisi.htm Dates from circa 400BC - in India. A “Cross and Circle” game. A simplified version released in England in 1896 under the name Ludo (“I Play” in Latin).

15 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 15 Tabula A Latin word meaning “Table”, this game was famously played by Emperor Claudius. Originally known as Alea (“Gambling”), this game is derived ultimately from Ludus Duodecim Scriptorum.

16 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 16 Tafl Tafl dates back to at least 400AD, a fragment of an 18x18 board found at Wimose, Fyn, Denmark. Play of Hnefatafl (literally, “King’s Table”) was widespread in Northern Europe until the advent of Chess. Hala-Tafl (the Fox game) is a variant documented in the Icelandinc saga “Grettis” in 1300AD.

17 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 17 Chess The first reference to the forerunner to chess (Shatranj) was in a persian book written during the 6th century AD. (Image from http://games.byond.com/start/images/chess.jpg )

18 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 18 Chess By 650AD, arab countries had learned of the game. It arrived in Europe during the latter part fo the 8th Century AD. The modern game of Chess (plus or minus a few rules) evolved from the primitive games of chess around the 15th Century.

19 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 19 Alphonso X Manuscript Alphonso X (King of Leon and Castile) Manuscript written during the 1280’s. Describes versions of: –Chess. –Tables. –Morris. –Alquerque.

20 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 20 Moksha-Patamu An ancient Indian race game. Released in England in 1892 under the name of Snakes & Ladders. Originally had moral teachings: –“Ladders” were originally virtues, allowing a player to progress up the board. –“Snakes” were originally vices, forcing a player back down towards the beginning. –About reincarnation, maybe? The moral aspect has since gone...

21 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 21 Card Games First recorded use of playing cards is from 1371 in Spain. Tarot games first played in Italy 1430's Poch card game, ancestor to Rummy Royale (circa 1440). Standard card suits in France circa 1480 –hearts –clubs  –spades  –diamonds 

22 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 22 Card Games Edmund Hoyle (1672 - 1769) writes a series of books (“Short Treatise”) on card and board games of the era (the best known ones were his rules for Whist and backgammon). Cards used for Fortune-telling (Cartomancy) first documented in 1781 in “Le Monde Primitif” by Antoine Court de Gébelin.

23 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 23 Card Games During the 19th Century AD, Bridge develops from earlier games (mainly variations of Whist). Poker first mentioned in print, 1836. –An American game, similar to Poch. –An extremely popular modern-day gambling game. Especially the variant “Texas hold’em.”

24 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 24 The Landlord’s Game Patented 1904, by Lizzie J. Magie. (Image from http://tt.tf/gamehist/rules/lg-1904.html )

25 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 25 The Landlord’s Game Does it look familiar to a more modern game that many people have played? For information see “The Landlord’s Game to Monopoly: A Historical View” ( http://tt.tf/gamehist/mon-index.html ) –A recommended visit - history, images, rules! –Important Note: The images shown with regards to the Landlord’s game have been used with permission from http://tt.tf/ please ensure you obtain permission if you want to reuse/redistribute these images.

26 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 26 The Landlord’s Game Released by in 1910 by Economic Game Company… (Image from http://tt.tf/gamehist/rules/lg-1910.html )

27 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 27 The Landlord’s Game …and then re-released by Parker Brothers in 1939. (Image Copyright Richard Biddle - see http://tt.tf/gamehist/rules/LG-1939.html for details)

28 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 28 Monopoly This game was originally thought to have been invented by Charles Darrow, 1933. –but what about The Landlord’s Game...? (Image from http://www.muurkrant.nl/monopoly/english_clasic_games.htm )

29 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 29 Monopoly Regardless of its origins, a popular game. –Translated into 26 different languages. –Licensed in 80 different countries. Property is based on Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. Initially rejected by Parker Bros. for having “52 fundamental design errors.” Is Monopoly a long, tedious and somewhat boring game? –“House Rules” - Free Parking etc.

30 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 30 Lexico Designed by Alfred Mosher Butts in 1931. –Originally boardless, it involved making words, with scoring related to the use of statistically less-frequent letters. –Patent refused in 1933. Lexico is combined with the concept of a crossword-style board to become Criss- Crossword in 1938. –Rejected by the big manufacturers, again! Becomes Scrabble in December 1948.

31 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 31 Video Games 1956… or perhaps 1962 (depending on whose story you believe) - the first blobs move around on a screen to form the first video game. More on this small insignificant event (that has subsequently spawned an entire industry) next week!

32 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 32 Othello Designed by Goro Hasegawa in 1971. First published in Japan. Based on Reversi - a game by Lewis Waterman in 1888.

33 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 33 Dungeons & Dragons Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson, 1974. –Kickstarted the Role Playing Game genre. –Accusations of devil worship during the ‘80s.

34 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 34 Die Siedler von Catan (1995) Designed by Klaus Teuber. The most successful German-style board game internationally to date. Voted “Spiel des Jahers” (“Game of the year”) in Germany in 1995. Simple in terms of basic rules. Complex in terms of possible interactions and game dynamics.

35 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 35 Die Siedler von Catan (1995) (Image from http://rutenshito-hp.hp.infoseek.co.jp/review/gazou/catan02_b.jpg )

36 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 36 Links and further information A History of Games Timeline http://www.historicgames.com/gamestimeline.htm l Website on Traditional Games http://www.tradgames.org.uk A card games web site http://www.pagat.com The Landlord’s Game to Monopoly: A Historical View http://tt.tf/gamehist/mon-index.html

37 8th October, 2005AD500xxE Interactive Gameplay Design - Week 1, Lecture 2 37 Next Lecture (The last 2 hour lecture!) The Video Game Revolution –AKA. The history of gaming, part II. –with Christian Cooper The Social Issues of CG –with Mitja Kostomaj Thursday 13th October, 2005 –09:00 - 11:00 –G.006


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