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International Models for Affordable Housing: Lessons from the United Kingdom The Euromoney Egypt Housing Finance Conference - 25 May 2009 Trowers & Hamlins.

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Presentation on theme: "International Models for Affordable Housing: Lessons from the United Kingdom The Euromoney Egypt Housing Finance Conference - 25 May 2009 Trowers & Hamlins."— Presentation transcript:

1 International Models for Affordable Housing: Lessons from the United Kingdom The Euromoney Egypt Housing Finance Conference - 25 May 2009 Trowers & Hamlins LLP Sceptre Court 40 Tower Hill London EC3N 4DX t +44 (0) f +44 (0) contact Tonia Secker (London)Sara Hinton (Cairo) e

2 Introduction ■ What is affordable housing – the UK view? ■ Who delivers it? ■ What are we trying to achieve with new affordable housing? ■ Delivery models for new build affordable housing

3 What is Affordable Housing? ■ Low cost rental accommodation ■available for rent ■sub market levels ■made available to people whose needs are not adequately served by the commercial housing market ■ Low cost home ownership accommodation ■occupied on shared ownership/shared equity basis ■made available to people whose needs are not adequately served by the commercial housing market

4 Key requirements for delivery in the UK ■ Long terms affordable housing use ■ Sustainability of design and construction ■ Regional fit ■ Sub-market rents and controls ■ Security of tenure ■ Move towards investment return on public sector subsidy

5 Newbuild Affordable Housing delivery models ■ Recognition that State subsidy is necessary – unless rent levels are high ■ Gap between the costs of construction and ongoing maintenance and the level of associated debt which can be serviced by the rental income ■ Models which balance subsidy and private finance

6 Delivery Models ■ Capital subsidy – short term payment ■ Private Public Partnerships – revenue payment over long term

7 Capital Subsidy ■ National competition – operated by Government agency ■ Pot of available subsidy ■ Bid for grant – contribution towards acquisition and construction costs ■ Assessment against criteria ■ £2.7 billion allocated 2008/2009

8 Basic Structure Local Authority Bank Manager HCA Government Tenants Developer Tenancy Agreement Loan Direct Agreement Grant Agreement Management Agreement Rentcharge Nominations

9 Key Contract Characteristics – Construction Phase (1) ■ Base design and quality standards ■ Payment in 2 tranches – security required for 1 st tranche ■ Payments linked to satisfaction of conditions and milestones

10 Key Contract Characteristics – Construction Phase (2) ■ Restrictions on disposals ■ Recovery grounds for default ■ Independent certification of works ■ Certification of final costs ■ Reporting obligations ■ Certainty for developer and State

11 Key Contract Characteristics – Operational Phase (1) ■ Affordable housing use ■ Approved form of tenancy ■ Services Specification ■ Restrictions on rent levels – limited to an index ■ Restrictions on power to dispose of land

12 Key Contract Characteristics – Operational Phase (2) ■ Rights against the land on default ■ Clawback of grant on disposals ■ Right to acquire

13 Housing - PPP ■ State specifies in outline terms what it requires ■ Private sector consortia will then bid to deliver it ■ State gains use of an asset before it has fully paid for it ■ Private sector borrowing funds development; payment runs from practical completion

14 Loan Agreement Municipality BankShareholders Landlord Residents Direct Agreement Project Agreement Subcontractors Tenancies and Leases Council Direct Agreements Equity SPV Subcontracts Rents

15 Housing PPP - Development Phase ■ Clear specification ■ Defined delivery dates ■ Independent certification of practical completion ■ Consequences of late delivery ■ Monitoring ■ Funder step in

16 Housing PPP Payment flows when housing is operational: Government Occupants Funder Project Company Shareholders Subcontractor providing maintenance and management Payments for operation of housing subject to performance criteria Repayment of finance Equity Return Contract payments Landlord Project Company

17 Housing PPP – Operational Phase (1) ■ Clear specification ■ Monthly payments to SPV – subject to performance ■ Availability deductions – only paid for “available” housing

18 Housing PPP – Operational Phase (2) ■ Performance deductions ■ Catastrophic events – insurance ■ Who covers the risk of empty houses? ■ Termination for material failure – compensation ■ Funder step in to avoid termination

19 Housing PPP – Longterm Ownership of Asset ■ Who gets the housing at the end of the project? ■ State option ■ Landlord obligation ■ Key is total debt repayment ■ If no outstanding debt?


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