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3 4/22/2015 1 Chapter 3 Income and Expense Analysis.

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Presentation on theme: "3 4/22/2015 1 Chapter 3 Income and Expense Analysis."— Presentation transcript:

1 3 4/22/2015 1 Chapter 3 Income and Expense Analysis

2 3 4/22/2015 2 Chapter Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, the participant will be able to: –Recognize critical information related to the appraiser’s lease analysis –Recall recognized methods and techniques for estimating and applying market level rent as a component of the appraiser’s value analysis –Estimate, from analysis of market data, various losses and operating expenses associated with income- producing properties –Identify the method and use of expense and income ratios

3 3 4/22/2015 3 Key Terms Collection Loss Estate for Years Net Income Ratio (NIR) Operating Expense Ratio (OER) Periodic Tenancy Reconstructed Operating Income Statement Rent Roll Rent Survey Vacancy Rate

4 3 4/22/2015 4 Lease Analysis Level of analysis is determined by scope of work: –Amount of agreed-upon rent –Term of lease (e.g., month-to-month, one year) –Provisions for rent or terms to change –Beginning and ending date –Personal property included –Expenses paid by landlord/tenant –Other services/amenities provided by landlord

5 3 4/22/2015 5 Analyzing Lease Documents Easier for smaller residential income properties than those with a large number of units Leases are not standard and can vary in style, format, and content Not all of the content will be meaningful to the appraiser –Some portions are of special interest

6 3 4/22/2015 6 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

7 3 4/22/2015 7 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

8 3 4/22/2015 8 Analyzing Lease Documents Month-to-month agreements are referred to in many areas as a periodic tenancy –When the rent is paid for that month (or some other period of time), the lease automatically renews until the rent is due at the beginning of the next period When the lease agreement is for a specified period of time (e.g., 6 months or 1 year), the agreement creates a leasehold estate known in some areas as estate for years or a term tenancy continued

9 3 4/22/2015 9 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

10 3 4/22/2015 10 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

11 3 4/22/2015 11 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

12 3 4/22/2015 12 Analyzing Lease Documents continued

13 3 4/22/2015 13 Rent Roll Briefly details the unit information, lease terms, and contract rent, as well as the effective date of the leases that are in place for the property –Can be compiled by the client or property owner as an alternative to presenting each individual lease –Could be created as a summary of the lease terms and information by the appraiser after he examines individual lease documents –Appraiser might develop a rent roll based upon an interview with the client or property owner

14 3 4/22/2015 14 Rent Roll Example

15 3 4/22/2015 15 Estimating Market Level Rent Determining an applicable market level rate of rent for subject property is the core of the appraiser’s income analysis for any income- producing property If data is plentiful and relevant, this will be relatively simple

16 3 4/22/2015 16 Rent Surveys A compilation of the rents being generated, and often rent history, in a particular market for a particular property type Should include properties that share similar: –Locational desirability –Physical characteristics –Lease terms and conditions

17 3 4/22/2015 17 Rent Survey Example

18 3 4/22/2015 18 Adjusting Rent Data Some physical differences can be observed for which a dollar amount could be assigned for the possible adjustments The scope of work might require the appraiser to further analyze different elements of market appeal –Knowledge of market and market participants will assist the appraiser with this recognition

19 3 4/22/2015 19 Deriving Rent Adjustments Example 1

20 3 4/22/2015 20 Deriving Rent Adjustments Example 2

21 3 4/22/2015 21 Applying Rent Adjustments Bedroom--$50 per month Central Air-Conditioning--$25 per month Covered Parking--$50 per month

22 3 4/22/2015 22 Estimating Vacancy and Collection Losses Losses due to vacancy and collection are usually based on a percentage of the PGI The percentage applied is derived from information obtained through: –The property owner –Analysis of leases or rent roll –Market data of other similar properties

23 3 4/22/2015 23 Deriving a Vacancy Rate Vacancy Rate: A percentage rate for all units comprised of the total number of unrented days divided by the total number of rentable days in a year –Should always reflect market level

24 3 4/22/2015 24 Deriving a Vacancy Rate Example Subject’s Vacancy Rate: 28 Days ÷ 1,460 Days (365 x 4 units) = 1.92% (Vacancy Rate)

25 3 4/22/2015 25 Deriving a Vacancy Rate Example The subject property owner’s estimation of vacancy is not representative of market level Since the subject has four units, market level vacancy rates would fall somewhere between 2.38% and 2.51% If the subject’s PGI was $36,000 ($750 x 4 units x 12 months) and a vacancy rate of 2.50% was determined to be appropriate for the subject, the vacancy loss would be $900 $36,000 x 2.50% (0.025) = $900 continued

26 3 4/22/2015 26 Treatment of Collection Losses Collection (or credit) loss: An amount stated as a percent or a dollar amount reflecting the risk anticipated for nonpayment of rent by tenants Appropriate when the market supports that there is evidence in the market for its use –Can be derived from surveys similar to that which was performed to derive a market vacancy rate When warranted, it is applied to PGI in the same manner as the percentage for vacancy loss

27 3 4/22/2015 27 Expense Analysis Market level operating expenses must be estimated when scope of work includes the analysis of NOI Data ideally provided by, or through an interview with the property owner Appraiser will typically develop a reconstructed operating income statement: –A statement prepared by the appraiser that reflects anticipated net operating income (NOI)

28 3 4/22/2015 28 Expense Analysis Example See extensive example on pages 33-35

29 3 4/22/2015 29 Operating Income Analysis Extensive analysis is common for larger multi-family properties A specific form reporting the reconstructed operating income statement is most often a client requirement for 2- to 4-unit residential properties when appraisal is to be used in a mortgage finance transaction

30 3 4/22/2015 30 Reconstructed Operating Income Statement Next step after estimating market level rent/income, as well as market level expenses The net operating income concluded in this analysis represents a one-year projection for the property See Example on page 36

31 3 4/22/2015 31 Expense and Income Ratios Types of ratios: –Operating Expense Ratio (OER) –Net Income Ratio (NIR) Regardless of which the appraiser chooses, the comparison should be consistent (e.g., comparing the OER for the subject to the OER from the market)

32 3 4/22/2015 32 Operating Expense Ratio (OER) The ratio of total operating expenses to effective gross income, expressed as a percentage Total Operating Expenses ÷ Effective Gross Income OER =

33 3 4/22/2015 33 Operating Expense Ratio (OER) Example The subjects total operating expenses = $17,008 The subject’s effective gross income = $35,100. Thus, the OER for the subject is 48.46% $17,008 ÷ $35,100 = 0.4846 or 48.46% Subject’s OER is reasonable and bracketed within the data

34 3 4/22/2015 34 Net Income Ratio (NIR) The ratio of net operating income to effective gross income, expressed as a percentage Net Operating Income Effective Gross Income NIR÷ =

35 3 4/22/2015 35 Net Income Ratio (NIR) Example The subject’s indicated NOI = $18,092 The subject’s effective gross income =$35,100 Thus, the NIR for the subject is 51.54%. $18,092 ÷ $35,100 = 0.5154 or 51.54% Subject’s NIR appears reasonable and is bracketed within the data

36 3 4/22/2015 36 Chapter 3 Quiz 1.A three-unit apartment building had two units vacant for ten days each during the past year with the third unit being vacant for 17 days. What is the annual vacancy rate indicated by the data? a.2.41% b.3.14% c.3.38% d.3.97%

37 3 4/22/2015 37 Chapter 3 Quiz 2. In a market value assignment, the contract rent of the subject should be a.the basis of the appraiser’s analysis for owner- occupied units. b.discussed in the appraisal report at the appropriate level of detail. c.disregarded, since it never reflects market level. d.used as EGI in every income analysis.

38 3 4/22/2015 38 Chapter 3 Quiz 3. When an amenity common to the market is provided by the subject property’s landlord per the terms of the lease, the cost of the amenity must be included when developing a.debt service. b.effective gross income. level operating expenses. surveys.

39 3 4/22/2015 39 Chapter 3 Quiz 4. Analysis of a two-unit property includes developing appropriate replacement reserves for the subject property. Rounded to the nearest dollar, what should be the total annual replacement reserve for the property? a.$3,667 b.$4,487 c.$5,852 d.$6,187 Item Years Remaining Estimated Cost Carpet3$3,800 HVAC10$7,200 Appliances4$6,000 Roof12$12,000

40 3 4/22/2015 40 Chapter 3 Quiz 5. Which is a factor used in the appraiser’s analysis that represents the ratio of total operating expenses and effective gross income? a.EGI b.NIR c.NOI d.OER

41 3 4/22/2015 41 Chapter 3 Quiz 6. If a four-unit apartment building with a PGI of $950 per unit had a total vacancy of 63 days during the year, what was the EGI? a.$40,380 b.$41,570 c.$43,630 d.$45,790

42 3 4/22/2015 42 Chapter 3 Quiz 7.Using these adjustments, what is the indicated adjusted rent to be applied to the subject? Bedroom—$75 Central A/C—$50 Covered Parking—$25 a.$1,050 b.$1,200 c.$1,250 d.$1,275 Subject Unit Comparable Unit #1 Comparable Unit #2 Contract Rent (Monthly) __$1,225$1,075 Bedrooms332 Central A/CYes No Covered Parking NoneYesNone

43 3 4/22/2015 43 Chapter 3 Quiz 8.Which item would NOT be considered an operating expense? a.accounting expense for property b.commission payment to property manager c.landscape maintenance payment

44 3 4/22/2015 44 Chapter 3 Quiz 9.Rounded to the nearest dollar, if the EGI for a three-unit property is $22,560, what is the NOI if the net income ratio is 46.57%? a.$10,506 b.$11,731 c.$12,337 d.$13,639

45 3 4/22/2015 45 Chapter 3 Quiz 10. For the purpose of analysis, the appraiser gathers the subject’s income and expense data from the property owner to assist in developing a a.reconstructed operating income statement. adjustment. survey. d.vacancy loss.

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