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Lecture 7 Contracts, Deeds, and Leases. Lecture 7 Deeds.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 7 Contracts, Deeds, and Leases. Lecture 7 Deeds."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 7 Contracts, Deeds, and Leases

2 Lecture 7 Deeds

3 Title and Deeds Title: “Proof of Ownership” Deed: An Instrument of Conveyance – Merchantable Title: Attorney abstracts and opines conveyance histories

4 Deeds TWO PARTIES TO A DEED: “Grantor”: Owner conveying (selling or giving) right, interest, or title to another party “Grantee”: Receives right, interest, or title from Grantor

5 Deeds: Validity Requirements Grantor must meet age and mental capacities Grantor must be identified with certainty Grantor’s signature required Consideration required Contain words of conveyance Legal description Signature requirements Deed must be delivered from Grantor to Grantee

6 Deeds: Warranty Deeds Grantor conveys ALL property rights to Grantee. Seizin: Right to Convey Quiet Enjoyment: Grantee not to be bothered with subsequent claims of ownership Against Encumbrances: Other than specified easements and other encumbrances, Grantor discloses all known

7 Deeds: Special Warranty Deeds Special Warranty Deed covers only the period AFTER the Grantor assumed ownership.

8 Deeds: Non-Warranty Deeds Quitclaim Deed – Grantor gives up rights, interests, and title held at transfer Judicial Deed – Given by a court following judicial proceedings

9 Deeds: Recording After Conveyance Recording: Conveyance instruments become Public Records. - Constructive Notice of Ownership - Northeast Fla: $10.00 for first page, $8.50 for add’l pages Documentary Stamps: State Revenue Department taxes on conveyance of title - Florida: $0.70 per each $100 of the SALE PRICE Example: $100,000 sales price = $100,000 *.007 = $ of Stamps

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11 Lecture 7 Title & Title Insurance

12 Evidence of Clear (Marketable) Title Abstract and Attorney’s Opinion Certificate of Title Title Insurance

13 TWO SIGNIFICANT FORMS: Owner’s Standard: Insures rights of new owner Mortgagee’s Title Policy: Insures owner up to amount of mortgage debt ITEMS TYPICALLY INSURED: Duress in execution of Instruments Marital rights of spouse reported incorrectly Undisclosed divorce False representation of true owner Forged documents Deeds written by Grantors who were minors, aliens, or incompetent

14 Lecture 7 Contracts

15 Types of Contracts Valid, Voidable, Void, Unenforceable Bilateral, Unilateral

16 Types of Contracts Valid: Fulfills all legal requirements imposed by law, and therefore enforced by courts of law Voidable: Contract is valid, but one party can exercise right to avoid or set aside contracted obligations Unenforceable: Contract is valid, but not recognized by courts if legal action is sought in courts Void: Contract is NOT valid, and not recognized by courts of law

17 Types of Contracts Bilateral: Agreement made between two or more people 1. One party makes an offer (promise) to second party 2. Second party accepts 3. Bilateral contract formed Unilateral: Offer (promise) made by one party to another 1. One party makes an offer (promise) to a second party, and second party receives the benefit of the promise contingent upon the performance of the offer (promise) Real Estate Contracts:Bilateral Real Estate Listing Agreements:Unilateral

18 Contracts: Requirements for Validity and Enforceability Agreement (Offer and Acceptance) Consideration Competent Parties Reality of Consent Legality of Purpose Necessity of Writing in Certain Instances

19 Contracts: Requirements for Validity and Enforceability AN AGREEMENT Offer: Initial step in the formation of a contract 1. Definite and Certain 2. Complete 3. Communicated to the Seller 4. Intended to create legal obligation between two parties Acceptance: Indication of willingness to be bound by terms of an offer 1. Made only by persons to whom offer was made 2. Unconditional and identical to terms of the offer 3. Communicated to the offeror

20 Discharge: Complete performance by both parties Nonperformance: One party legally excused from a binding contract Breach of Contract: Failure by a party to perform contracted obligations Liquidated damages, nominal damages, Specific Performance Discharge, Nonperformance, Breach of Contract

21 Lecture 7 The Lease

22 Leases LEASE: Written document in which the rights to use and occupancy of land or structures are transferred by the owner (Landlord) to another for a specified period of time in return for a specified rent

23 Parties to a Lease TENANT: One who holds/possesses real property; commonly, a person who occupies and uses the property of another under a lease (lessee) LANDLORD: The owner of real estate that is leased to others

24 Rights of Tenancy Fee-Simple/Non-Freehold/ Freehold Interest Less-Than Freehold Use Exclusion Possession Disposition Use Exclusion Possession Disposition

25 Non-Freehold Interests LEASED-FEE INTEREST: Ownership interest held by a Landlord with the right of use and occupancy conveyed by lease to others LEASEHOLD INTEREST: Rights to use and occupy real estate for a stated term and under certain conditions; conveyed by a lease

26 Leased-Fee v. Leasehold Leased-Fee Leasehold Rights Conveyed By Lease Contract Rent Use Exclusion Possession Disposition Use Exclusion Possession

27 Positive and Negative Leasehold Interests Negative Leasehold Positive Leasehold Market Rent CONTRACT RENT

28 Subletting SUBLEASE: An agreement in which the lessee in a prior lease conveys the right of use and occupancy of a property to another SANDWICH LEASE: A lease in which an intermediate, or sandwich, leaseholder is the lessee of one party and the lessor of another.

29 Subletting Leased-Fee LeaseholdSub-Leasehold Use Exclusion Possession Disposition Use Exclusion Possession Use Exclusion Possession Lease Contract Rent Contract Rent Sandwich

30 Characteristics of Commercial Leases Agreement and Consideration – “Meeting of the Minds” – Owner sets asking price, and makes proposal to tenant – Tenant accepts, and lease is commenced Common Lease Clauses – Fixtures Clause – Tenant Improvements Clause – Hours-Of-Business Clause – Use Clause – Signage Clause – Condemnation Clause

31 Commercial Rental Structures Gross Lease – Landlord pays for all expenses – Expense Stops Net Lease – Tenant pays for “pro-rata” share of determined expenses – Triple-Net (NNN): Tenant pays for pro-rata share of Common Area Maintenance (CAM), Ad Valorem Taxes, Hazard Insurance

32 Commercial Rental Structures Percentage Rent (Overage Rent) – Portion of Tenant’s rent based on business income – Fixed Rental Portion + Overage Portion – Recapture Clause (helps hedge owner risk of tenant’s poor business performance) Escalated Rents – Flat rent amount over a set period, increases periodically thereafter – Escalators contracted or based on consumer indices

33 Examples of Rental Structures 1.Tenant pays $50,000, and Landlord/Owner pays all operating expenses. 2.Tenant pays $30,000 annually, PLUS 2% of all retail sales over $750,000. The store’s gross sales were $900, Tenant pays $10,000 annually plus its share of hazard insurance, ad valorem taxes, and CAM totaling $30,000 per year. 4.Tenant pays $24,000 annually for the first year, and the Landlord pays all operating expenses. In years 2 through 6, the rent increases by an amount equal to the respective CPI, or 3.5%.


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