2OVERVIEWThis section of the training will give you information on defenses available to tenants in eviction cases and review the law on which the most common defenses are based.
3UNLAWFUL DETAINER – SUMMARY PROCEDURE Very technicalFive day response periodNo cross-complaintsPriority on the calendarSpeedy trial settingShort discovery periodsStrict construction of rules by courtPublic policy – avoid self-help
4WHAT THE LANDLORD WANTS Possession primarilyRent/damages, costs, attorney fees
5WHAT THE TENANT WANTSTheir day in court – due processLandlord to meet strict requirementsMaintain possession orTime to relocate
6BACKGROUND ON SIGNFICANT TENANTS’ RIGHTS/DEFENSES Significant rights include:A right to a habitable unit;A right to exercise the rights under law without retaliation by the landlord;A right to be free from discrimination in the terms and conditions of rental.
7WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY A rental unit must be fit to live in.Warranty includes unit and common areas.
8DEFINITION OF HABITABILITY Habitable means:fit for occupancy by human beings;in substantial compliance with state and local building codes that materially affect the tenant’s health and safety;in compliance with provisions of the Civil Code and Health and Safety Code.
9RESPONSIBILITY FOR REPAIRS Landlord’s responsibilityUnit must be habitable when at the beginning of the tenancy.Unit must be habitable during tenancy.
10IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY Green v. Superior Court, 10 Cal.3d 616 (1974)Residential leases and rental agreements include an implied warranty of habitability.Dependent covenants – obligation to pay rent and obligation to repair.Common law – duty to repair independent of obligation to pay rent.
11BASIS FOR DECISIONNo relationship to social and legal realities of landlord/tenant relationship today;Contract for a place to live, not land;Scarcity of affordable housing;Lack of bargaining power;Inability to do major repairs or inspections.
12Uninhabitable conditions Unit is considered uninhabitable if itsubstantially lacks any of the following:Effective weatherproofing and weather protection;Plumbing in good condition;Hot and cold running water;Sewage disposal system.
13UNINHABITABLE CONDITIONS (CONT.) Gas facilities in good working order;Heating facilities in good working order;Electrical system including lighting, wiring and equipment in good working order;Clean and sanitary buildings and grounds free from trash, debris, rubbish, garbage, rodents and vermin;Adequate trash receptacles in good repair.
14UNINHABITABLE CONDITIONS (CONT.) Deadbolt locks on entry doors and locks or security devices on windows;Additional requirements Health and Safety Code;Lead paint;Mold and mildew.
15TENANT’S RESPONSIBILITY Keep premises as clean and sanitary as conditions permit;Operate gas, electrical and plumbing fixtures properly;Dispose of trash and garbage properly;No destruction of property by tenant, family or friends;Use of the premises as a place to live and rooms for intended purposes.
16NO OBLIGATION TO REPAIR If tenant fails to do these things andhas substantially caused an unlivable condition and/or;has substantially interfered with the landlord’s ability to do repairs.
17TENANT REMEDIES TO GET REPAIRS DONE Must give notice - oral or written;Written is preferable;Must wait a reasonable time;Must be a condition that affects health and safety;Series of escalating remedies available.
18REPAIR AND DEDUCT Tenant gives notice; Tenant waits a reasonable time; Tenant pays for repairs;Must be substandard condition that affects health and safety;Can be used two times/year, one month’s rent each time;Tenant is not the cause of the problem.
20CONTACT CODE ENFORCEMENT (Cont.) DISADVANTAGESWeak and lax enforcementDislocation of tenantsRetaliation and eviction
21RENT WITHHOLDING Tenant can withhold for conditions that seriously affect health or safety;If notice has been given and no repairs done;Examples of serious conditions;Rent into bank account.Eviction will inevitably result!
22RETALIATION No adverse action against tenant including eviction for: exercising certain enumerated rights orfor organizing activities orfor peaceful exercise of rights under law.Available as an affirmative defense;Basis for damages.
24RETALIATION (CONT.)Civil Code Section (a)180 days protection from latest of series of acts of retaliation;requires tenant to be current in rent.Burden of proof.
25RETALIATION (CONT.) Civil Code Section 1942.5 (c) Broader protection Includes tenant organizing, rent strikesPeaceful exercise of rightsBurden of proof.
26COMMON LAW DEFENSE Barela v. Superior Court, 30 Cal.3d 244 (1981) Significance of decision
27RETALIATION (CONT.)Requires careful interview of client on events prior to service of notice.Reason based on retaliation won’t be stated by owner or agent.
28DISCRIMINATIONAvailable as a defense if reason for eviction is discriminatory intent or effect.Illegal to discriminate under federal and state law based on specific classification or protected groups.Federal law – race, color, religion, sex, national origin, familial status, disability.
29DISCRIMINATION (CONT.) State law – federal law categories and additional classifications including marital status, ancestry, source of income, sexual orientation, arbitrary discriminationBoth federal and state laws require reasonable accommodation.
30THE DISCRIMINATION DEFENSE Must belong to protected group.Eviction must be based on membership in protected group.
31DISCRIMINATION (CONT.) Prove by direct evidence of intent or circumstantial evidence.Requires careful interview to get critical facts.Available as an affirmative defense.Basis for damages.
32TERMINATION OF TENANCY Usually the first step in the eviction processMust be in writingExceptionsEnd of leaseTermination of employee
33GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Must name the tenant Must include a description of the propertyMust include unequivocal demand for productionShould include a request for forfeitureNotice period must expire before filing
34TYPES OF NOTICES Three Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit Three Day Notice to Perform or QuitThree Day Notice to QuitThirty Day notice to Terminate TenancySixty Day Notice to Terminate TenancyNinety Day Notice to Terminate Tenancy
35THREE DAY NOTICE TO PAY RENT OR QUIT Cannot be served until the day after the rent is due;Must accurately state the amount of rent due and the period for which it is due;Should include rent only;Must be in the alternative;Must include locations, days and hours to pay;Must include information if alternative payment arrangements can be made;Rent for only one year;Should declare a forfeiture;Must include unequivocal demand for possession.
36SERVICE OF THREE DAY NOTICE TO PAY RENT OR QUIT Personal service on all tenantsSubstituted serviceNail and mailSame service requirements for Three Day Notice to Perform or Quit and Three Day Notice to Quit
37COMMON TENANT DEFENSES Premature filing of the ComplaintDefective serviceDefects on the face of the noticeHabitabilityTenderWaiver
38THREE DAY NOTICE TO PERFORM OR QUIT Must accurately state the breach;Must be in the alternative;Cannot be for a minor breach;Should declare a forfeiture;Must include an unequivocal demand for possession;Must be breach of an express covenant.
39COMMON TENANT DEFENSES Defective service of the notice;Failure to state details with sufficient particularity;Must be in the alternative;Minor problem;Waiver;Denial of allegations.
40THREE DAY NOTICE TO QUIT Serious breach that cannot be cured;Includes waste/nuisance, illegal drug sales, subletting and assignment if prohibited by the rental agreement/lease;Not required to be in the alternative;Breach must be described with sufficient particularity;Should declare a forfeiture;Must include an unequivocal demand for possession.
41COMMON TENANT DEFENSES Defective service of noticeMinor problemShould have been in the alternativeDenial of allegations
42THREE DAY NOTICE TO QUIT - FORECLOSURE Served on owner whose property has been sold at trustee’s sale
43COMMON TENANT DEFENSES Defective service of noticeCan require new owner to show that title has been perfectedFraud in transfer of title – Ascuncion motion
44THIRTY DAY NOTICE TO TERMINATE TENANCY Done to terminate month to month tenancy of less than one year;Month to month rental agreement;Must include unequivocal demand for possession;No need to state reason (exception – rent control jurisdiction).
45SERVICE OF NOTICE Personal service Substituted service Nail and mail Certified or registered mail
46TENANT DEFENSESDefective servicePremature filing of ComplaintWaiverRetaliationDiscrimination
47SIXTY DAY NOTICE OF TERMINATION OF TENANCY Done to terminate month to month tenancy of a year or more.Month to month rental agreement.Must include unequivocal demand for possession.Tenant in property not protected by PTFA.
48SERVICE OF NOTICE Personal service Substituted service Nail and mail Certified or registered mail
49NINETY DAY NOTICESection Eight Housing Choice voucher program- Wasatch Property Management v. Degrate, 35 Cal.4th 1111 (2005).Tenant in foreclosed property subject to PTFA.
50SERVICE OF SUMMONS AND COMPLAINT PersonalSubstitutedPosting
51PROBLEMS WITH SERVICE Sewer service Defective service remedies – motion to quash, abuse of process lawsuitCourtesy letter as remedy
52INITIAL CLIENT INTERVIEW Inquire about:Date of service of Summons and ComplaintDefendantsManner of service as to all defendantsDocuments served on the defendantsType of tenancy
53CASES TO REFERSubsidized housingMobilehome ownersForeclosure – fraud claims
54PREJUDGMENT CLAIM OF RIGHT TO POSSESSION Used by owners to determine who is occupying propertyUnnamed defendant must file within 10 days of service, answer 5 days laterDisadvantage – credit consequences
55A QUICK LESSON IN COUNTING Must file within 5 days of service including weekendsHoliday exceptionWhy counting is importantFile early if any doubtConsequences of a mistake
56NEXT STEPSReview Complaint allegationsReview prayerReview possible defenses
57WHAT IS NOT A DEFENSE Loss of income Receipt of welfare Inability to pay rentNo place to moveLots of childrenDisability unrelated to reason for eviction
58JUDICIAL COUNCIL ANSWER-UNLAWFUL DETAINER All answering defendants can use one Answer form; each defendant completes separate fee waiver forms.General denial vs. paragraph by paragraph denial, for example, paragraphs 7 & 8 for defective service.Deny all paragraphs containing untrue statements or statements with which the defendant disagrees.Denial on information or belief.
59AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSESInform the Court why the defendant should not be evicted;Need not be detailed;Enough information to give notice to the plaintiff.
60BEACH OF THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY Page 1, 2b – deny paragraphs 10 and 11Page 1, box 3a must be checkedPage 2, box 3j to add facts orUse an attachment page – see 3 j (1) or (2) and paragraph 6Must address defects, notice, failure to repair
61BREACH OF THE IMPLIED WARRANTY OF HABITABILITY (CONT.) Add language on page 2, paragraph 4b, for example, “The premises are not habitable.”Check box on page 2, paragraph 5 d.
62REPAIR AND DEDUCTPage one, box 2 a or 2 b –deny paragraphs 10 and 11- must be checked.Page one, box 3 b must be checked.Must have complied with statutory requirements.Plaintiff must have failed to give credit.Page 2, box 3j to add facts orUse an attachment page – see 3 j (1) or (2) and paragraph 6.Must address defects, notice, failure to repair, defendant’s repair of defects.
63REPAIR AND DEDUCT (CONT.) May add language on page 2, paragraph 4b.May check box on page 2, paragraph 5 d.
64TENDER OF RENT Requires tender of full amount In form generally accepted by ownerWithin the three day notice periodPage one, box 2 a or 2 b –deny paragraphs 10 and 11- must be checked.Page one, box 3 c must be checked.Additional facts on page 2, paragraph 3j
65LANDLORD WAIVED NOTICE Repeated acceptance of late rentAgreement to accept late rentPage one, box 2 a or 2 b –deny paragraphs 10 and 11- must be checked.Page one, box 3 d must be checked.Additional facts on page two, paragraph 3j.
66RETALIATION DEFENSE Page one, box 3 e must be checked. Additional facts can be added on page 2, paragraph 3j.Sufficient to state that the reason the plaintiff is evicting the tenant is, for example, “Defendant complained to code enforcement.”
67.DISCRIMINATION DEFENSE Page one, box 3 f must be checked.Additional facts can be added on page 2, paragraph 3j.Sufficient to state that the plaintiff is evicting defendant because he is (state protected group). If necessary, add that plaintiff has failed and refused to make reasonable accommodation for defendant’s disability.
68ACCEPTANCE OF RENT Page one, box 3 h must be checked. Additional facts can be added on page 2, paragraph 3j.Examples include acceptance of rent for a period after the Thirty or Sixty Day notice expired.
69OTHER AFFIRMATIVE DEFENSES Page one, box 3 i must be checked.Additional facts can be added on page 2, paragraph 3j.Any defenses that don’t fit anywhere else can be added. For example, the plaintiff breached the covenant of quiet enjoyment by repeatedly entering defendant’s residence without permission.Advisable to a catchall phrase such as “The Complaint fails to state a cause of action.”
70TENANTS WHO HAVE DEFAULT JUDGMENTS Setting aside requires showing of mistake, inadvertence, excusable neglect.Numerous pleadings necessary.Interview to establish sufficiency of reason.
71PRE-TRIAL DISCOVERYJudicial Council Interrogatories.Judicial Council Requests for Admission.Depositions.Timelines.
72SUMMARY JUDGMENT Basis – no triable issue of fact. Done to pro pers to gain advantage.Five day notice.Response – written or oral.
73SETTLEMENT AGREEMENTS Advantages – certainty for both sides.Disadvantages – attorney representation on one side only.Issues to resolve – vacate date, rent/damages, costs, attorney fees, dismissal of case.
74POST-TRIAL MOTIONSPetition for Relief from Forfeiture.Motion for Stay of Execution on Writ of Possession.Appeals.