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PRESENTATION NAME Company Name How to use depth of field and shutter speed to improve your digital photos By Laurie Miller Use the arrows at the bottom.

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Presentation on theme: "PRESENTATION NAME Company Name How to use depth of field and shutter speed to improve your digital photos By Laurie Miller Use the arrows at the bottom."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRESENTATION NAME Company Name How to use depth of field and shutter speed to improve your digital photos By Laurie Miller Use the arrows at the bottom of the pages to advance the slide.

2 Have you ever thought you were going to have a great photograph only to have the camera take a photo that looked completely different from what you imagined?

3 Huh! Those pictures didn’t come out right! Both are blurry, and I used the automatic setting on my camera. What’s wrong???? 1

4 PRESENTATION NAME Company Name How would you like to take a professional style photograph that focuses on the subject, has clear images and shows the action that is occurring in the photograph? 1

5 PRESENTATION NAME Company Name This can be accomplished through a clear understanding of:  Shutter Speeds and  Aperture Settings on the manual setting of your digital SLR. 1

6 And …………

7 Can turn these photos: Into these photos: Blurry due to motion Motion frozen Blurry & unclear due to depth of field Deeper depth of field 1 1

8 At the end of this Learning Module: Learners will be able to use shutter and aperture settings to identify the steps used to create a new photograph that has shallow/deep depth of field and freeze/blurred motion based on an existing photograph. The prerequisite skills for this learning module are: Understand basic concepts of photo composition Identify basic parts of an SLR digital camera Set camera to manual mode

9 This learning module has 7 sections: Review of prerequisite skills Locate the aperture and shutter Explain and Interpret shutter speed Explain the functions of the aperture and interpret f-stop readings Differentiate between blurred and freeze motion Differentiate between shallow and deep depth of field Describe the relationship between shutter speed and aperture settings when analyzing the composition of a photo You will be given practice at the end of each section before you move to the next section and quizzed at the end of the whole module.

10 Section 1: Review of prerequisite skills.

11 Let’s begin with a quick review of the 4 basic points of composition:  Simplicity – the photograph should include only what you want the viewer to see.  Contrast – Place light subjects on dark backgrounds and vice versa  Rule of Thirds - Divide the photograph into thirds to achieve balance and interest  Framing – have something in the foreground to give a sense of where the viewer is

12 What 3 points of composition are exemplified in the photograph below and how? Let’s see what you remember: a.Simplicity b.Contrast c.Framing d.Rule of thirds e.Subject f.Color Click for answers

13 What 3 points of composition are exemplified in the photograph below and how? Answer: a. Simplicity – The photo shows only the spider b. Contrast – the spider is a bright light color on a darker background d. Rule of thirds – the spider is in the upper third of the photo to create interest Let’s see what you remember: a.Simplicity b.Contrast c.Framing d.Rule of thirds e.Subject f.Color

14 Now to review some terms and mechanics of SLR Digital cameras: Click on the word to review the function of each feature If you are confident you know all the terms and their functions then click on the arrow to skip the review button Mode dial Shutter Grip Lens

15 Shutter button: Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right Push the shutter button to take a picture. button Mode dial Shutter Grip Lens

16 Mode Dial: This dial changes the mode your camera is in such as manual, automatic, portrait or landscape. Top view of the mode dial Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right button Mode dial Shutter Grip Lens

17 Grip: Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right Where you place your right hand when taking a photo to steady the camera button Mode dial Shutter Grip Lens

18 Click on the next word you would like to review If you are finished reviewing all the terms click on the arrow at the bottom right Lens: Mode dial Shutter Grip Lens button Focuses the camera on the image to be stored on digital media

19 Let’s see what you remember: Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper State the name and function of each numbered part Click here to check your answers

20 Answers: Lens: Focuses the camera on the image to be stored on digital media Grip: Where you place your right hand when taking a photo to steady the camera Mode Dial: This dial changes the mode your camera is in such as manual, automatic, portrait or landscape. Shutter button: Push the shutter button to take a picture

21 Now that we have reviewed photo composition and basic terms let’s end the review by putting your SLR Camera in manual mode:

22 Using the Mode Dial you can put your SLR digital camera in manual mode so you have the control to adjust your shutter speed and aperture opening. Remember this is your mode dial and…. You want to set it to M for manual mode

23 Let’s see what you remember! Which part of the SLR digital camera allows you to change your camera to a manual setting? a. Shutter b. Grip c. Mode Dial d. Lens What letter represent manual setting? a. P b. M c. AV d. Man Click for answers

24 Answers: Which part of the SLR digital camera allows you to change your camera to a manual setting? a. Shutter b. Grip c. Mode Dial d. Lens What letter represent manual setting? a. P b. M c. AV d. Man your mode dial

25 Section 2: Locate the aperture and shutter on the camera

26 The aperture of a camera is located in the photographic lens behind the glass lens of a camera. The shutter of a camera is located in the body of the camera, behind the aperture and in front of the surface that captures the image. Image sensor

27 Your Turn! On the diagram: identify where the aperture is located identify where the shutter is located Click here for answer

28 The aperture of a camera is located in the photographic lens behind the glass lens of a camera. The shutter of a camera is located in the body of the camera, behind the aperture and in front of the surface that captures the image. Answer:

29 R Section 3: Explain and Interpret shutter speed on the camera

30 Remember the photograph of the baby at the beginning of this module - how his hands looked blurry? This was caused by a low shutter speed. The shutter determines how long the image sensor is being exposed to light or the scene being photographed, and is measured in fractions of seconds. For instance, a shutter speed of 250 would let you know that the image sensor has been exposed to light for 1/250 th of a second.

31 The higher the shutter speed the shorter the image sensor is exposed to the image. The lower the shutter speed the longer the camera is exposed to the image ½ ¼ What you see on the camera screen For instance, 1000 means the shutter is open for 1/1000 th of a second and excellent for catching motion in a brief moment in time. A shutter speed of 30 means the shutter is open for 1/30 th of a second and can blur a person in action due to the longer exposure. Shutter speed Photographic image

32 In general, the guideline for catching action shots is to use a shutter speed 250 or above and for blurred motion use a shutter speed 30 or below.

33 Your Turn! 1. Which shutter speed is faster: 250 or 30? Why? 2.If you want to catch a clear picture of runners in the Olympics as they cross the finish line where should you set your shutter speed? 3. What shutter speed was likely used to create the lines of car lights in the photograph? a. 125 b. 500 c. 30 d. 1/250 a. 125 b. 500 c. 15 d Click here for answers

34 Answers: 1. Which shutter speed is faster: 250 or 30? Why? 2.If you want to catch a clear picture of runners in the Olympics as they cross the finish line where should you set your shutter speed? 3. What shutter speed was likely used to create the lines of car lights in the photograph? a. 125 b. 500 c. 30 d. 1/250 a. 125 b. 500 c. 15 d because the shutter is opening and closing at a rate of 1/250 th of a second and 30 is opening and closing at 1/30 th of a second. 1/250 th < 1/30th To review the concept click hereTo move on click here

35 The higher the shutter speed the shorter the camera is exposed to the image. The lower the shutter speed the longer the camera is exposed to the image ½ ¼ What you see on the camera screen In general, the guideline for catching action shots is to use a shutter speed 250 or above and for blurred motion use a shutter speed 30 or below. The Olympic runner is an example of an action shot and the line of car lines an example of blurred motion. Photographic image

36 R Section 4: Explain the function of the aperture and interpret f-stop readings

37 Remember the picture of the clocks at the beginning – how the second clock was blurry? This was caused by a low aperture setting. The aperture is a circular opening behind your lens that determines the size of the hole that allows light into the camera. The size of the aperture is indicated by its f-stop and is measured by the lens focal length divided by the diameter of the aperture opening. The aperture works like the pupil in your eye. In darker places it needs to be open wider and in brighter places it needs to be smaller. 1

38 silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010 F-stops are the reverse of what you might think. The larger the f-stop number the smaller the circumference of the aperture and the smaller the f-stop number the larger the circumference of the aperture. So, an f-stop of 16 means that less light gets into the camera than an f-stop of 4.5.

39 Your Turn! 1.Based on the diagrams below determine which aperture setting will let more light in and which will let less light in? 2. Which f-stop will let in the least amount of light? a.f/16 b.f/2.8 c.f/5.6 d.f/8 3. What is the relationship between the opening of the aperture and the f-stop setting? Click here for answers

40 Answers: 1.Based on the diagrams below determine which aperture setting will let more light in and which will let less light in? 2. Which f-stop will let in the least amount of light? a.f/16 b.f/2.8 c.f/5.6 d.f/8 3. What is the relationship between the opening of the aperture and the f-stop setting? This will have a larger f-stop because it is a smaller circle This will have a smaller f-stop because it is a larger circle As the aperture opens wider to allow more light in the f-stop setting gets smaller and vice versa. To review the concepts click here To move on click here

41 silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010 F-stops are the reverse of what you might think. The larger the f-stop number the smaller the circumference of the aperture and the smaller the f-stop number the larger the circumference of the aperture. So, an f-stop of 16 means that less light gets into the camera than an f-stop of 4.5.

42 R Section 5: Differentiate between blurred and freeze motion

43 Recall from Section 3:

44 So, when the shutter speed is increased, the exposure of the image sensor to the light is decreased because the shutter is moving faster. This allows your camera to “freeze” the motion. However, when the shutter speed is decreased, the exposure of the image sensor to the light is increased because the shutter is moving slower. This allows your camera to “blur” the motion. Fast shutter speed Slow shutter speed 1 1

45 Your Turn! 1. Given the photo below what was likely the shutter speed setting and how could you adjust the shutter speed to create a blurred photo next time? a.The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 1000 to blur the motion b.The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motion c.The shutter speed was 250 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 500 to blur the motion d.The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed to blur the motion 1

46 2. Why does increasing the shutter speed freeze motion? 3.Given the photograph below, describe what shutter speed was needed to blur the flags? a.A shutter speed greater than 250 b.A shutter speed greater than 500 c.A shutter speed less than 250 d.A shutter speed less than 60 BONUS: Why is the lady in the middle of the photo not blurry? Click here for answers 1

47 Answers: 1. Given the photo below what was likely the shutter speed setting and how could you adjust the shutter speed to create a blurred photo next time? a.The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 1000 to blur the motion b.The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motion c.The shutter speed was 250 and you would have to increase the shutter speed to 500 to blur the motion d.The shutter speed was 60 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed to blur the motion Click here for explanation 1

48 2. Why does increasing the shutter speed freeze motion? 3.Given the photograph below, describe what shutter speed was needed to blur the flags? a.A shutter speed greater than 250 b.A shutter speed greater than 500 c.A shutter speed less than 250 d.A shutter speed less than 60 BONUS: Why is the lady in the middle of the photo not blurry? By increasing the shutter speed you are reducing the amount of time that the image sensor is exposed to the image being captured, so you are less likely to get motion within a shorter period of time. The lady is still so it doesn’t matter if the shutter speed is slower Click here for explanation 1

49 To freeze and action like in the photograph of the boy playing basketball, the camera needs to have a shutter speed above 125. To blur an image the camera need to have a shutter speed below 60 So the correct answers is: The shutter speed was 1000 and you would have to decrease the shutter speed below 60 to blur the motion Return to answers

50 To blur an action like in the photograph of the lady praying in the middle of the flags, the camera needs to have a shutter speed below 60. Since the lady isn’t moving she still appears frozen even though the shutter setting is low. Return to answers

51 Section 6: Differentiate between shallow and deep depth of field

52 Recall from Section 4: The aperture is a circular opening behind your lens that determines the size of the hole that allows light into the camera and f-stops are the reverse of what you might think. The larger the f-stop number the smaller the circumference of the aperture and the smaller the f-stop number the larger the circumference of the aperture. silverstrandphoto.files.wordpress.com/2010

53 When the aperture size increases (the f-stop number decreases) more light is let in and the image is less sharp. The subject is the only part of the image that is clear and sharp. This give you a shallow depth of field since a majority of the photo is less sharp. Likewise, when the aperture size decreases (the f-stop number increases) less light is let into the camera and the whole image is sharper and in focus. This gives you a deep depth of field since a majority of the photo is more sharp. Shallow depth of field Deep depth of field 1 1

54 Your Turn! 1.Given what you know about aperture settings which of the following would be a better setting for a landscape photograph where you want everything to be sharp? a. f/2.8 b. f/8 c. f/16 d. f/5.6 2.Given the photographs below which one uses a lower f-stop setting and which one is deep depth of field? Explain your answer. 1 1

55 3.The pictures of the pigeons in the park below has a lot going on. As a viewer I don’t know whether to focus on the path leading to the trees in the background or the pigeons in the foreground of the picture. What would be an appropriate f-stop if I wanted the pigeons to be the subject of my photograph? a.F/22 b.F/16 c.F/4.5 d.F/5.6 Click here for answers 1

56 Answers: 1.Given what you know about aperture settings which of the following would be a better setting for a landscape photograph where you want everything to be sharp? a. f/2.8 b. f/8 c. f/16 d. f/5.6 2.Given the photographs below which one uses a lower f-stop setting and which one is deep depth of field? Explain your answer. Lower f-stop/Shallow depth of field Higher f-stop/Deep depth of field Click for explanation 1 1

57 3.The pictures of the pigeons in the park below has a lot going on. As a viewer I don’t know whether to focus on the path leading to the trees in the background or the pigeons in the foreground of the picture. What would be an appropriate f-stop if I wanted the pigeons to be the subject of my photograph? a.F/22 b.F/16 c.F/8 d.F/5.6 Remember if you want to make the background less clear you want a lower f-stop, thus a larger aperture opening. By making the background less clear the foreground will become the focus 1

58 When the aperture size increases (the f-stop number decreases) more light is let in and the image is less sharp. The subject is the only part of the image that is clear and sharp. This give you a shallow depth of field since a majority of the photo is less sharp. Likewise, when the aperture size decreases (the f-stop number increases) less light is let into the camera and the whole image is sharper and focus. This gives you a deep depth of field since a majority of the photo is more sharp. Shallow depth of field Deep depth of field Return to answers 1 1

59 Section 7: Describe the relationship between shutter speed and aperture settings when analyzing the composition of a photograph

60 Both shutter speed and aperture settings affect the light that enters the camera. Shutter speed affects the length of light exposure and aperture setting affects the amount of light that enters at one time. Thus there is a relationship between the two. When you decrease shutter speed you must increase your f-stop and vice versa.

61 It works like a see-saw. When one side goes up the other side must go down the equal amount. Starting at the equilibrium of f/5.6 and 200 you can increase the f-stop by 2 levels to f/8 but that makes the shutter reading decrease by 2 to 100. Up 2 stops Down 2 speeds If you do not adjust for your change in f-stop or shutter speed then you can over or under expose you photo. So, this is an important step to remember!

62 Your Turn! 1.If you decrease your shutter speed 4 settings, by how many and in what direction would you adjust the f-stops for your aperture? a.Decrease by 4 stops b.Decrease by 2 stops c.Increase by 2 stops d.Increase by 4 stops 2. If you decrease the f-stop by 3 stops, by how many settings and in what direction would you adjust the shutter speed? a.Decrease by 3 settings b.Increase by 3 settings c.Increase by 1 setting d.Decrease by 1 setting

63 Aperture Settings Shutter Speeds 3.You take a photo at 500 (1/500 th of a sec) with an f-stop of f/5.6. If you take the same photograph at 60 (1/60 th of a sec) to create a blurred motion effect, what would your f-stop need to be so the photograph isn’t overexposed? a.f/5.6 b. f/2c. f/16d. f/4 4.You are at a kid’s birthday party and you take a picture of a child hitting a piñata but the bat and the child comes out blurry in the picture. To correct this problem you need to freeze the motion by ______________ the shutter speed. However, to make sure the photo isn’t under exposed now, you need to ____________ the f-stop. Click here for answers photographylesson.org

64 Answers: 1.If you decrease your shutter speed 4 settings, by how many and in what direction would you adjust the f-stops for your aperture? a.Decrease by 4 stops b.Decrease by 2 stops c.Increase by 2 stops d.Increase by 4 stops 2. If you decrease the f-stop by 3 stops, by how many settings and in what direction would you adjust the shutter speed? a.Decrease by 3 settings b.Increase by 3 settings c.Increase by 1 setting d.Decrease by 1 setting Click for explanation

65 Aperture Settings Shutter Speeds 3.You take a photo at 500 (1/500 th of a sec) with an f-stop of f/5.6. If you take the same photograph at 60 (1/60 th of a sec) to create a blurred motion effect, what would your f-stop need to be so the photograph isn’t overexposed? a.f/5.6 b. f/2c. f/16d. f/4 4.You are at a kid’s birthday party and you take a picture of a child hitting a piñata but the bat and the child comes out blurry in the picture. To correct this problem you need to freeze the motion by ______________ the shutter speed. However, to make sure the photo isn’t under exposed now, you need to ____________ the f-stop. Down 3Up 3 increasing decrease photographylesson.org

66 It works like a see-saw. When one side goes up the other side must go down the equal amount. Up 4 stops Down 4 speeds If you do not adjust for your change in f-stop or shutter speed then you can over or under expose you photo. So, this is an important step to remember! Down 3 stops Up 3 speeds Return to Answers

67 Conclusion: Putting it all together to analyze photographs

68 Let’s revisit those photographs of the clocks and baby at the beginning of the lesson. Blurred motion Frozen Motion Increase shutter speed Shallow depth of field Increase f-stop Deep depth of field How did we get from one to the other? 1 1

69 Now let’s analyze a series of photographs and how shutter speed and aperture settings affect the image produced. Here you have deep depth of field because the background is in focus and you have blurred motion since the people are laughing and moving. So you have a low shutter speed with a high f- stop. Halfway, the aperture setting has been decreased because the background is blurry. The shutter speed has increased because there is less blurred motion. Finally, the subjects are in focus by increasing the shutter speed further. Which is compensated for by a reduced f-stop and less sharp background.

70 Yea! We were correct! The f-stops decreased from 22 down to 2.8 as the shutter speeds increased from 4 to 250.

71 Hopefully, you now feel confident in your understanding of shutter speeds, aperture settings and how they relate to each other to compose a professional looking photograph. Are you ready for your final Quiz?

72 You will be given 2 photographs to critique in terms of shutter and aperture setting. You should identify the steps used to create a new photograph that has shallow or deep depth of field and freeze or blurred motion based on the existing photograph. Final Quiz

73 How did aperture setting and shutter speed help transform the photo on the left to the photograph on the right?

74 In order to create the blurred motion of the water the shutter speed was lowered below 30 (1/30 th of a sec). It in fact was lowered to 2 (1/2 sec) from 180 (1/180 th of a sec). In order to compensate for the decreased shutter speed the f-stop was increased from f/4 to f/22. This is evident in the exposure level of the photo and the crisp background.

75 The pictures below are of pigeons in a park. The photo on the left was taken at an aperture setting of f/16 and a shutter speed of 8 (1/8 th of a sec). Describe the photograph on the left in terms of motion and depth of field. Now, describe how one could change the shutter speed and aperture setting to create the image on the right. 1 1

76 The motion of the pigeons is blurry due to the low shutter speed, but you can clearly see the stationary object at any depth due to the high f-stop giving the photo a deep depth of field. Here the shutter speed was increased to capture flapping wings of the pigeon. However, that means the aperture setting needed to be adjusted, so the f-stop was decreased, making the background less sharp and clear. 1 1

77 Now that you have mastered the use of shutter speed and aperture settings to explain how photos with a shallow depth of field, deep depth of field, frozen motion and blurred motion are produced on the manual setting of your SLR digital camera, go out and practice with your camera.

78 I hope you enjoyed this lesson and have learned a lot!

79 References 1 - London, Barbara, et al. (2011). Photography. Prentice Hall: Boston.


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