# So WHAT would you like to Review? Astronomy Geology Meteorology Metric Measurement Scientific Method Simple Machines and Energy.

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So WHAT would you like to Review? Astronomy Geology Meteorology Metric Measurement Scientific Method Simple Machines and Energy

Can you guess what the following pictures are trying to show you? (all answers relate to ASTRONOMY)! Astronomy

2 Answers: shown on next slides

The Earth is titled at 23.5 degrees. This is one of the reasons why we have seasons! The Earth spins on this axis every DAY. Some planet’s spin faster/slower. Remember: ONE object turning, think a ballerina

Careful, the half that faces the sun experiences daylight (It has NOTHING to do with where the axis of rotation is!)

Can you guess what this picture is showing?

The traveling of one object around another (remember when you hold up two fingers it makes the “v” in revolution) For the Earth, this process takes about 365 1/4 days (365.242). The closer to the sun, the less time it takes to revolve around it (ex. Jupiter complete one REVOLUTION before Uranus (tee hee) ). Ex. So to go from location B to D would require ½ the amount of time (1/2 a year)

What keeps everything from FLYING into space? Gravity

Nearly EVERYTHING in our Universe travels in a counterclockwise direction due to the force of gravity. This includes how ALL the planets revolve around our sun and how MOST of our planets rotate on their axis.

More DEAD dudes (beside Newton with his Gravity stuff)… Match the fella with his Model Ptolemy Copernicus Brahe Kepler

Let’s see who got it right! What revolves around it?And what revolves around that? Kepler wins! What goes in the “middle” of our solar system? And what shape are all of their paths?

Everything starts out as…? Which is drawn together by…? And creates…?

Complete the Phrase… VERY EDUCATED MOTHER JUST SERVED US NACHOS MY Now name our planets…

The half of the moon facing the sun is reflecting the sun’s light

It’s all about how much of the lighted moon I can see. REMEMBER: Wax on, wane off Light from the right, dark from the right I see NOTHING (new moon) I see an almost full (gibbous) moon. When I look on the RIGHT, it’s dark (waning) WANING GIBBOUS

Waxing Waning To be RIGHT, look on the RIGHT Light on the right Dark on the right CRESCENT EXAMPLE: Dark on right (WANING), sliver (CRESCENT)

Measuring Distances in Space “large” distances“small” distances between planetsbetween stars and galaxies Astronomical Units (AU) Light years Such as… Measured in…

Stars Start as: Must have enough: More mass means: What must happen to be considered a star: NEBULA MASS MORE GRAVITY NUCLEAR FUSION

You see the part of the sky facing away from the Sun. The part you see depends on:  Where you are (your latitude)  When you look (we see different places of the sky as we revolve around the Sun.

All rocks are made of minerals There are 3 different types of rocks, based on how they’re made

The color of the powder left behind on the streak plate.

The Moh’s scale is a 1 – 10 scale of hardness. Start by trying to scratch the mineral with your fingernail. Stop when you finally scratch the mineral.

Any type of rock can change into a different rock.

Always made from cooled molten matter (lava or magma) Turn it into Sedimentary by breaking it up and putting the pieces back together. Turn it into Metamorphic by squishing the rock.

When the pieces (sediments and sometimes fossils) are brought together. Can be changed into a different rock similarly to the previous slide.

When heat and/or pressure forces the rock into a more compact form.

If rock layers are not disturbed, the bottom layer is oldest. You can’t build the second floor of a building without building the first floor first.

Crust Mantle Outer Core Inner Core

The crust is made of the LITHOSPHERE (rock part of surface) and the HYDROSPHERE (the water layer). About ¾ of the Earth is covered in water. Weather takes place in the ATMOSPHERE

The upper portion of the mantle is the ASTHENOSPHERE. This ooey, gooey layer is heated by the core, the heat rises due to convection. It then cools as it touches the crust, and sinks. The constantly moving convection cells cause the plates of the lithosphere to move and groove.

See it in action Convection cell animation

These convection cells are just like the convection cells found in boiling water

When these plates are bopping around, we can see or feel the effects where the plate boundaries are.. Earthquakes Volcanoes Mountains Trenches This is the theory of Plate Tectonics

PANGEA: it is believed that all land masses were once united and moved due to plate tectonics. Fossils have been found at different locations of the world that could only be explained if the continents were once united.

Meteorology

Air Pressure Air pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of air A barometer is a tool for measuring air pressure. Falling pressure is (BAD) as it signals a storm. (usually a front is nearby, too!)

Air movement because of pressure differences. Breezes move from HIGH pressure areas to LOW pressure areas.

Temperature and Pressure These different pressures might result from differences in temperature. Like you bundled up, waiting for the bus. Packed – HEAVY Like you getting too hot from running so you spread out to cool. Light – LOW

This moving air is called wind Some examples of local (small distance) breezes that result because water temperature changes slower than land temperature

Where does this HEAT come from?

This energy travels (radiates) off of the Sun in all directions. (see yellow arrows) This heated “ground air” will now rise and heat the rest of the atmosphere by CONVECTION The ground/water/clouds are now heated (not the air) The ground/water/clouds will heat everything it TOUCHES (by CONDUCTION

Humidity Amount of moisture in the air % of air that is full 100% = sky leaks (precipitation) Temperature when the sky is 100% full (precipitation happens)

Using a psychrometer Drybulb Temperature Drybulb MINUS Wetbulb

Air Masses A mass of air that has similar temperatures and amounts of moisture. They get these characteristics from their source region (where they form). As it moves, the characteristics of an air mass change and so does the weather in the area over which the air mass moves.

Frigid (Polar) Canadian (continental) Air Mass Moves Southward An Example Will bring cooler drier weather

Fronts uWuWhen two air masses meet, they form a front, which is a boundary that separates two air masses. uWuWeather is almost always precipitous (stormy) uTuThe name of the front is who is doing the “pushing”.

Which Front? Warm Fronts (think Wimp) warm air moves into an area formerly covered by cooler air. Cold Fronts (think Bully) cold, dense air moves into a region occupied by warmer air.

Cold Front: The zone where cold air is replacing warmer air In U.S., cold fronts usually move from northwest to southeast Air gets drier after a cold front moves through

Formation of a Cold Front

Warm Front: The zone where warm air is replacing colder air In U.S., warm fronts usually move from southwest to northeast Air gets more humid after a warm front moves through

Formation of a Warm Front

Low pressure This is where you will find fronts and storms

Field maps Isotherms (same temperature) Isobars (same pressure)

Station Models

The Weather Station Model

Metric Measurement

What are you measuring? Build off of the BASE UNIT Length meter Mass gram Liquid volumemilliliter What TOOL will you use to measure it? ruler triple beam balance Graduated cylinder

Volume Solid regular – the sides can be measured Solid irregular – the sides canNOT be measured Liquid Measure sides – length * width * height Fluid displacement – how much liquid did it “move” (displace) in a graduated cylinder Graduated cylinder cm 3, mm 3, dm 3 etc… ml or cc Each ml = cm 3

Add some prefixes to build off the BASE units You just need to know how many times and which direction to move your decimal point!

I Ran Happily Eating Oreo Cookies And Rich, Creamy Hershey’s Chocolate Scientific Method Experiment and make Observations Identify a Problem Research the Problem Hypothesize how to solve the Problem Draw Conclusions Accept, Reject or Change your Hypothesis Communicate Results

Variables All the “little things” that can change in an experiment Amount of… Type of… If there is…

Types of Variables Manipulated or Independent The scientist changes it… Can only have ONE in a good experiment First change (CAUSE) Responding or Dependent Forced to change because of the first change What you are trying to solve Second change (EFFECT)

Variable Example You are trying to study. Your little sister keeps pestering you. You want to find, scientifically, the best way to keep her quiet. Manipulated/Independent Variable: What could YOU try to change? (amount of…, type of…, if there is…) If you shut your door or not. Amount of candy you give her. How loudly you ask her to be quiet.

Variable Example You are trying to study. Your little sister keeps pestering you. You want to find, scientifically, the best way to keep her quiet. Responding/Dependent Variable: What is FORCED to change? (amount of…, type of…, if there is…) Amount of noise your sister makes

Variable Example You are trying to study. Your little sister keeps pestering you. You want to find, scientifically, the best way to keep her quiet. Controlled Variables: What NEEDS to stay the SAME? (amount of…, type of…, if there is…) Same sister When you study (unless you make that your manipulated variable) Where you study (unless you make that your manipulated variable)

Variable Example You are trying to study. Your little sister keeps pestering you. You want to find, scientifically, the best way to keep her quiet. Controlled GROUP : You need a whole group/trial that NOTHING is changed (maybe the week before) *not even the manipulated/independent variable. This shows how it exist NATURALLY and gives you something to compare your data to. How loud is your sister NORMALLY?

Hypothesis “If…, then…” statement. “If *independent/manipulated variable does this, then *dependent/responding variable does this”

Hypothesis Example You want to find the best way to encourage your parents to raise your allowance. What are all the different things you could try? (each is an example of an independent/manipulated variable Ex: how many chores I do, how high my scores are in school, how often I complain, the number of times I’m reminded to clean my room each day

Hypothesis Example “If *independent/manipulated variable does this, then *dependent/responding variable does this” Now PICK one to try: how often I complain “If., then. ” “If how often I complain DECREASES, then the chances of increasing my allowance INCREASES”

Observation vs. Inference Observation Using one or more of your 5 senses to gather data MUST occur AT that time Not something you “know” or “think” but what you actually WITNESS Inference A GUESS about your observation WHAT you THINK it is WHY you THINK it happen WHAT you THINK will happen next Must be logical and based upon the observation

Observation vs. Inference Example Observation: The object is symmetrical (mirror image on each side) The outer portion is made of 4 parts The center is rod shaped and darker than the outer parts There are 2 “thread-like” objects coming out of the central section of the object Inference This is a butterfly It will fly away This creature lives in a wooded or brown-colored environment What you CANNOT observe: This is a butterfly It is flying Anything about it’s color, your opinion of it, or what the “parts” are

Data Tables Independent or Manipulated Variable (operational definition – label) Dependent or Responding Variable (operational definition – label)

Data Tables Independent or Manipulated Variable (operational definition – label) Dependent or Responding Variable (operational definition – label) Title

Data USING this data Independent or Manipulated Variable (operational definition – label) Dependent or Responding Variable (operational definition – label) Is there a PATTERN from one set of data to the next? 210 4 Increased 2 (whatevers) 15 Increased 5 (whatevers) 6 21 Increased 6 (whatevers) Increased 2 (whatevers)

Interpolate: Inferring in between data Independent or Manipulated Variable (operational definition – label) Dependent or Responding Variable (operational definition – label) If my Independent Variable is 5, what would you INTERPOLATE the Dependent Variable to be? 210 4 Increased 2 (whatevers) 15 Increased 5 (whatevers) 6 21 Increased 6 (whatevers) Increased 2 (whatevers) Any guess that is about 2.5 *half of 5 or 3 *half of 6 larger than 4/smaller than 6. Acceptable answers: 17.5-18.5

Extrapolate: Guessing before/after the data collected Independent or Manipulated Variable (operational definition – label) Dependent or Responding Variable (operational definition – label) If my Independent Variable is 8, what would you EXTRAPOLATE the Dependent Variable to be? 210 4 Increased 2 (whatevers) 15 Increased 5 (whatevers) 6 21 Increased 6 (whatevers) Increased 2 (whatevers) Any guess that is about 5 or 6 or 7 (if the pattern continues) larger 21. Acceptable answers: 26-28

Graphing Independent or Manipulated Variable Dependent or Responding Variable Title: Just like Data Tables Age the Number of Teens with Cell Phones

Double Line Graph You will need a key Ex. Solid line for “boys” and dotted line for “girls” Be certain the variables are on the right axis Make sure each axis “counts” by a specific amount to fill your graph as well (and as understandably) as possible. Ex. Years counts by 1’s and The Height counts by 2’s Don’t forget your title! Oops, Where is the TITLE?

Simple Machines and Energy We JUST did this! Read your 2 page reference packet, silly!

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