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Learning Objectives Summarize the development of type styles.Identify the basic terms used to describe type. Summarize seven typeface classifications. Explain the difference between a family, a series, and a font of type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Learning Objectives Identify the common type sizes and units used in typography. Explain the factors that contribute to the legibility of type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typefaces Distinctive visual symbols used to compose printed pagesAssortment of characters is necessary to put words into print Typefaces have different names Number of new typefaces has increased with computerized typesetting © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typography Art of expressing ideas in printed form through selection of appropriate typefaces Typographer selects: Appropriate typefaces to be expressed in type Other details of reproduction and physical format © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface Terminology © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Character Terms Hairline Stem Stroke Stress Serif Set width© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Type Style DevelopmentHand-lettered book pages were used in medieval Europe Type metal was used in mechanical printing from individual pieces of type Foundry type was major form of type used from 1400s through mid-1900s Photographic and electronic methods of typesetting are used today © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Black Letter Manuscript style was used by scribes in Germany, France, and Holland Similar to modern type style of Old English Basis for development of earliest metal type © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Development of the Roman Type StyleChanges in type styles happened in Italy Subiacio face was early version of Roman face Nicolas Jenson designed and cut Roman letter forms Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius in Venice © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Modern Typefaces Garamond designed elegant and refined typefaceJanson modified manuscript letter with lighter lines Caslon created typeface used for printing on rougher stock Baskerville developed transitional typeface Bodoni created typeface with greater differences between light and heavy elements © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Contemporary TypefacesPrimarily from 20th century Three groups: Modern versions of basic book faces of early printers Modifications of basic book faces made for newspapers New display faces © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Roman Typeface ElementsHeavy elements Light elements Serifs Ascenders Descenders © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface ClassificationsRoman Sans serif Square serif Black letter Script or cursive Novelty or Decorative Italic (variation of other classifications) © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Roman Typefaces Oldstyle Roman typefaces Transitional Roman typefacesUsed for book text matter Transitional Roman typefaces Used for print on smooth paper Modern Roman typefaces Distinguished contrast between light and heavy elements © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Sans Serif Second in popularity to Roman Monotone appearanceHeavy and light elements have same thickness Few faces have heavy and light elements © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Square Serif Formed with strokes of equal weight with finishing-off strokes added Shape of serif is square Not easy to read Used for display or headlines © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Black Letter or Text Resembles calligraphyUsed for printed materials relating to special occasions Difficult to read when set in all capital letters © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Script Typeface or CursiveDesigned to simulate handwriting Distinction in whether or not individual letters in words are joined Used for headlines, announcements, invitations, and letterheads Seldom used for setting full printed pages or large blocks of body copy © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Novelty Typeface or DecorativeVarious typefaces used to command special attention Also called occasional Must be chosen to express mood or theme Not intended to be used as body copy © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Italic Slanted version of upright letterTreated as separate classification Called oblique in electronic composition Used for emphasis, foreign words, terms being defined, quotations, and poetry © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Reverse Type Usually white characters on solid black or color background Stresses importance of message or information in copy Many types are difficult to read when reversed, especially in small point sizes © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface Families, Series, and FontsGroupings of typefaces by specific styles of type Families are groups of styles Series is total range of sizes of one type style of a given font Font is complete set of letters and other characters contained in typeface © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface Family Variations of typestyles are part of familiesWidth variations Condensed typefaces Expanded faces Weight variations © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface Series Common sizes are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 Introduction of phototypesetters allowed use of different sizes that were not common to relief process Electronic composition allows virtually any size needed © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Type Font Kinds and total number of characters differ from font to font Symbols or special characters may be included Ligatures Small caps Pi characters © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Points and Picas Two principal units of measure used in graphic communications industry Picas measure line lengths and composition depth Do not confuse point size with x-height © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Points and Picas Text or body type Display typeType sizes from 4-point through point Display type Type sizes above 12-point © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Picas and Points 1 point is 0.01383″, with 12 points in 1 pica1 pica is 0.166″, with 6 picas in approximately 1 inch Layout and design software programs note pica values as whole number with lowercase “p,” followed by points value 4 picas and 5 points is presented as 4p5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Ems and Ens Em is unit of printer’s measure equal to height and width of capital M in given size of type Em quad was used to indent paragraphs Half of em quad is en quad © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Ems and Ens © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Set Size Also called set widthElectronic composition allows set width of characters and words to change © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Letterspacing and WordspacingLoose set Tight set Character compensation shrinks copy Tracking allows control of letter and wordspacing together Horizontal scaling © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Letterspacing and WordspacingModern equipment allows you to automatically justify type Widows can be avoided Line can be lengthened Previous line can be shortened Letterspacing and wordspacing can be changed © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Kerning Closes up space between certain charactersImproves appearance and readability of words Normally done for top- or bottom-heavy letters © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Legibility Factors Sometimes termed readabilityPurpose is major consideration when selecting typeface Straight matter Display type Physical factors contribute to legibility Visibility, letter forms, definition, type size, line length, and leading © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Visibility Contrast of typeface against light reflected by paperBrightness of white and colored paper varies Smoothness and opacity affect visibility Ink darkness depends on ink’s power to cover paper surface © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Definition Sharpness or distinction of printed imageSmall typeface requires smoother paper for good definition Special consideration must be given when placing type over screened backgrounds because poor definition may result © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Type Size Legibility increases up to 10-point typeStraight matter set in 10-point type is considered normal for comfortable reading X-height of font contributes to legibility Increases size of letters Decreases length of ascenders and descenders © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Line Length Also called line width Measured in picasEye span is about 40 characters Width of lines should correspond to eye span of reader to make reading easier © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Line Spacing Distance separating each line of copyAlso called leading Line spacing equal to size of type is called set solid Many systems can reduce spacing below typesize (negative leading) Proper leading unites lines horizontally and helps fit copy © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typefaces for Display Intended to draw attention to messageDisplay type is usually 14-point or larger Position of display line gives prominence Different weights of type can be used for emphasis © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What is foundry type?Foundry type is individual pieces of metal type that could be aligned with type containing other letters to form words and sentences for printing on paper. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What is point size?A vertical measurement used to identify or specify the size of a typeface. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What are the three classifications of Roman typefaces?Oldstyle Roman typefaces, Transitional Roman typefaces, and Modern Roman typefaces. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What is the difference between a typeface family and a typeface series? A typeface family is a grouping consisting of all the variations of one style of type. A typeface series is a grouping of the ranges of sizes of each typeface in a family. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What are the two principal units of measure used in the graphic communi-cations industry? Points and picas. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Review What is line length and how does it contribute to the legibility of printed materials? Line length is the distance from the left to right sides of a line or body of copy. When the width of the line corresponds to the eye span of the reader, the physical task of reading is made easier. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Ascender Black letter Body typeThe part of a letter that extends above the body height. Black letter A classification of type consisting of faces that resemble the hand-drawn lettering of German monks in the Middle Ages. Body type Type sizes that range from 4-point through 12-point that are used for setting straight matter. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Character compensationBrightness For paper classification, the percent reflectance of blue light only, centering on the wavelength of 457 nm. Calligraphy The art of hand-drawing letters, also known as manuscript writing. Character compensation A method of tight-setting copy by electronically reducing the width of each character and space very slightly, which reduces the white space between characters. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Characters Composition depth Condensed typefacesThe individual visual symbols, such as letters, numerals, and punctuation marks, in a particular typeface. Composition depth The space measuring from the beginning of a composition until the end of the composition. Condensed typefaces Those intended to get more words in less space by narrowing the width (but not height) of the characters. They are used rather than going to a smaller typeface. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Cursive Definition DescenderA typeface designed to simulate handwriting, in which the letters are not joined. Definition The sharpness or distinction of the printed image. Descender The part of a letter that extends below the body or baseline. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Display type Type sizes above 12-point, used to emphasize the importance of a message and capture the reader’s attention. Em quad In foundry type, a nonprinting type block that is a square of the type size, typically used to indent the beginning of the paragraph. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
En quad In foundry type, a spacing element half an em quad in width, typically used to separate words. Expanded faces Those intended to fill more space without going to a larger point size. Also called extended faces, they consist of letters that have been made wider without increasing their height. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Eye span The width of body type a person can see with one fixation (sweep or adjustment) of the eye muscles. The normal eye span is about one and one-half alphabets. Font In computer-based or phototypesetting composition methods, a font consists of all the characters that make up a specific typeface. A font in foundry type, where each character is on a separate piece of metal, consists of different quantities of each character in one size and style of type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Foundry type Heavy elements Ink darknessIndividually metal-cast type (letters, numbers, characters) that can be arranged to form words and sentences for printing on paper. Heavy elements The darker strokes of a type character that give it identity. Ink darkness A factor that affects the contrast of printed materials. Darkness depends on the ink’s covering power. Complete coverage hides the surface of the paper. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Italic type A slashed type, modeled on a form of handwriting. It was developed and first used by Aldus Manutius, a printer in Italy. Most Roman and sans serif faces have a companion italic of the same design. Justify To adjust letter-spacing and word-spacing so lines of type in a block are all equal in length, resulting in even left and right margins. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Kerning Legibility LetterspacingA typesetting technique in which space between certain pairs of characters is tightened to improve appearance and readability. Legibility A measure of how difficult or easy it is to read printed matter. Letterspacing Changing the spacing between typeset letters, for better appearance or to fit copy in a given space. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Ligatures Light elements Line lengthJoined letter combinations, such as fi, ff, fl, ffi, or ffl, found in some typefaces. Light elements The hairlines or other less-dark strokes that tie together the heavy elements of a type character. Line length The distance from the left to right sides of a line or body of copy, usually measured in picas. Also called line width. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Modern Roman typefacesLoose set Term describing wider than normal letterspacing. Manuscript A style of hand lettering used by the scribes of Germany, France, Holland, and other countries in the Middle Ages. Modern Roman typefaces Typefaces that have increased contrast between very thin, light elements and heavy elements. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Negative leading Novelty typefaceThe practice of reducing spacing below the type size, resulting in lines that are set very close together vertically. Novelty typeface A typeface designed primarily to command special attention, express a mood, or provide a specific appearance for a theme or an occasion. Also called “decorative” or “occasional” typefaces. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Oblique In electronic composition, the term used to describe a simulated italic character produced by slanting an upright Roman typeface. Old English A text typeface often used for such applications as diplomas, certificates, and religious materials. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Oldstyle Roman typefaceA group of typefaces that have a rugged appearance, with relatively little contrast between heavy and light elements. They reflect the earliest Roman designs. Opacity The quality of a paper that does not allow print from the opposite side to show through. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Pi characters Point sizeIn fonts for computer of phototypesetting, such symbols as stars, asterisks, arrows, percent signs, or checkmarks. In foundry type, such special characters are called sorts or dingbats. Point size A vertical measurement used to identify or specify the size of a typeface. Measurement is from the top of the ascender space to the bottom of the descender space. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Reverse type Roman typefaceWhite characters on a solid black or color background. Roman typeface A type style based on the capital letters cut into stone monuments by the ancient Romans. Nicolas Jenson developed Roman lowercase letters that would merge readily into word forms. Jenson’s designs were the models used by type designers for hundreds of years. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Sans serif Script typefaceThe classification for typefaces without serifs (stroke endings). This typeface classification is second only to Roman in popularity. Sans serif typefaces usually have heavy and light elements that are approximately the same thickness. Script typeface A typeface designed to simulate handwriting, in which the letters are joined. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Serif Set size Small capsThe thickened tips or short finishing-off strokes at the top and bottom of a Roman typeface character. Set size The width of a typeset character. Electronic composition makes it possible to change the set size of characters. Small caps Capital letters smaller than the normal caps of the font. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Smoothness Subiaco faceFreedom from surface irregularities. As a quality of paper, smoothness affects the visibility of printed images. Subiaco face An early version of the Roman typeface, used for several books and named for the town where the printing was done. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Text Tight set Tracking Words, sentences, or paragraphs.Term describing narrower than normal letterspacing. Tracking A feature of computer typesetting programs that allows control of letterspacing and wordspacing together. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Transitional Roman typefaceTypefaces that are a remodeling of Oldstyle faces. There is greater contrast between the heavy and light elements, and the characters are wider than the equivalent Oldstyle characters. Baskerville, a Transitional Roman, was the first typeface designed to print on smooth paper. Typeface Distinctive designs of visual symbols used to compose a printed page. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typeface family Typeface series Type metalA grouping consisting of all the variations of one style of type. Typeface series The range of sizes of each typeface in a family. The common type sizes used in printing are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 point. Type metal A low-melting-point alloy of lead, tin, and antimony used to cast foundry type. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Typographer TypographyA print designer who determines how a manuscript should be expressed in type as well as other details of reproduction. Typography The art of expressing ideas in printed form through the selection of appropriate typefaces. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Visibility A legibility factor that results from the contrast of a dark typeface against the light reflected by the paper. Weight The degree of boldness of the printing surface of a letter. The readable image might have a light, medium, bold, or extra-bold printing surface. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
Widow Wordspacing X-heightA very short word, or part of a word, forming the final line of a paragraph. Wordspacing Changing the spacing between typeset words, for better appearance or to fit copy in a given space. X-height The height of the lowercase “x.” Also called body height. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
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