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4 Typography Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Summarize the development of.

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Presentation on theme: "4 Typography Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Summarize the development of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 4 Typography

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Summarize the development of type styles. Identify the basic terms used to describe type. Summarize seven typeface classifications. Explain the difference between a family, a series, and a font of type.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Learning Objectives Identify the common type sizes and units used in typography. Explain the factors that contribute to the legibility of type.

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typefaces Distinctive visual symbols used to compose printed pages Assortment of characters is necessary to put words into printcharacters Typefaces have different names Number of new typefaces has increased with computerized typesetting

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typography Art of expressing ideas in printed form through selection of appropriate typefaces Typographer selects:Typographer –Appropriate typefaces to be expressed in type –Other details of reproduction and physical format

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface Terminology

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Character Terms Hairline Stem Stroke Stress Serif Set width

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Type Style Development Hand-lettered book pages were used in medieval Europe Type metal was used in mechanical printing from individual pieces of typeType metal Foundry type was major form of type used from 1400s through mid-1900sFoundry type Photographic and electronic methods of typesetting are used today

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Black Letter Manuscript style was used by scribes in Germany, France, and HollandManuscript Similar to modern type style of Old EnglishOld English Basis for development of earliest metal type

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Development of the Roman Type Style Changes in type styles happened in Italy Subiacio face was early version of Roman faceSubiacio face Nicolas Jenson designed and cut Roman letter forms Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius in VeniceItalic type

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Modern Typefaces Garamond designed elegant and refined typeface Janson modified manuscript letter with lighter lines Caslon created typeface used for printing on rougher stock Baskerville developed transitional typeface Bodoni created typeface with greater differences between light and heavy elements

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Contemporary Typefaces Primarily from 20 th century Three groups: –Modern versions of basic book faces of early printers –Modifications of basic book faces made for newspapers –New display faces

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roman Typeface Elements Heavy elements Light elements Serifs Ascenders Descenders

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface Classifications Roman Sans serif Square serif Black letter Script or cursive Novelty or Decorative Italic (variation of other classifications)

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Roman Typefaces Oldstyle Roman typefaces –Used for book text matter Transitional Roman typefaces –Used for print on smooth paper Modern Roman typefaces –Distinguished contrast between light and heavy elements

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sans Serif Second in popularity to Roman Monotone appearance Heavy and light elements have same thickness Few faces have heavy and light elements

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Square Serif Formed with strokes of equal weight with finishing-off strokes added Shape of serif is square Not easy to read Used for display or headlines

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Black LetterBlack Letter or Text Resembles calligraphycalligraphy Used for printed materials relating to special occasions Difficult to read when set in all capital letters

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Script TypefaceScript Typeface or CursiveCursive Designed to simulate handwriting Distinction in whether or not individual letters in words are joined Used for headlines, announcements, invitations, and letterheads Seldom used for setting full printed pages or large blocks of body copy

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Novelty TypefaceNovelty Typeface or Decorative Various typefaces used to command special attention Also called occasional Must be chosen to express mood or theme Not intended to be used as body copy

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Italic Slanted version of upright letter Treated as separate classification Called oblique in electronic compositionoblique Used for emphasis, foreign words, terms being defined, quotations, and poetry

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Reverse Type Usually white characters on solid black or color background Stresses importance of message or information in copy Many types are difficult to read when reversed, especially in small point sizes

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface Families, Series, and Fonts Groupings of typefaces by specific styles of type –Families are groups of styles –Series is total range of sizes of one type style of a given font –Font is complete set of letters and other characters contained in typeface

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface Family Variations of typestyles are part of families Width variations –Condensed typefacesCondensed typefaces –Expanded facesExpanded faces Weight variationsWeight

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface Series Common sizes are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 Introduction of phototypesetters allowed use of different sizes that were not common to relief process Electronic composition allows virtually any size needed

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Type FontFont Kinds and total number of characters differ from font to font Symbols or special characters may be included –LigaturesLigatures –Small capsSmall caps –Pi charactersPi characters

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Points and Picas Two principal units of measure used in graphic communications industry Picas measure line lengths and composition depthline lengths composition depth Do not confuse point size with x-heightpoint sizex-height

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Points and Picas Text or body typeTextbody type –Type sizes from 4-point through 12- point Display type –Type sizes above 12-point

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Picas and Points 1 point is ″, with 12 points in 1 pica 1 pica is 0.166″, with 6 picas in approximately 1 inch Layout and design software programs note pica values as whole number with lowercase “p,” followed by points value –4 picas and 5 points is presented as 4p5

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ems and Ens Em is unit of printer’s measure equal to height and width of capital M in given size of type Em quad was used to indent paragraphsEm quad Half of em quad is en quaden quad

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ems and Ens

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Set Size Also called set width Electronic composition allows set width of characters and words to change

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. LetterspacingLetterspacing and WordspacingWordspacing Letterspacing –Loose setLoose set –Tight setTight set Character compensation shrinks copyCharacter compensation Tracking allows control of letter and wordspacing togetherTracking Horizontal scaling

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Letterspacing and Wordspacing Modern equipment allows you to automatically justify typejustify Widows can be avoidedWidows –Line can be lengthened –Previous line can be shortened –Letterspacing and wordspacing can be changed

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Kerning Closes up space between certain characters Improves appearance and readability of words Normally done for top- or bottom- heavy letters

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. LegibilityLegibility Factors Sometimes termed readability Purpose is major consideration when selecting typeface –Straight matter –Display type Physical factors contribute to legibility –Visibility, letter forms, definition, type size, line length, and leading

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Visibility Contrast of typeface against light reflected by paper Brightness of white and colored paper variesBrightness Smoothness and opacity affect visibilitySmoothnessopacity Ink darkness depends on ink’s power to cover paper surfaceInk darkness

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Definition Sharpness or distinction of printed image Small typeface requires smoother paper for good definition Special consideration must be given when placing type over screened backgrounds because poor definition may result

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Type Size Legibility increases up to 10-point type Straight matter set in 10-point type is considered normal for comfortable reading X-height of font contributes to legibility –Increases size of letters –Decreases length of ascenders and descenders

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Line Length Also called line width Measured in picas Eye span is about 40 charactersEye span Width of lines should correspond to eye span of reader to make reading easier

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Line Spacing Distance separating each line of copy –Also called leading Line spacing equal to size of type is called set solid Many systems can reduce spacing below typesize (negative leading)negative leading Proper leading unites lines horizontally and helps fit copy

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typefaces for Display Intended to draw attention to message Display type is usually 14-point or larger Position of display line gives prominence Different weights of type can be used for emphasis

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review Foundry type is individual pieces of metal type that could be aligned with type containing other letters to form words and sentences for printing on paper. What is foundry type?

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is point size? A vertical measurement used to identify or specify the size of a typeface.

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the three classifications of Roman typefaces? Oldstyle Roman typefaces, Transitional Roman typefaces, and Modern Roman typefaces.

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is the difference between a typeface family and a typeface series? A typeface family is a grouping consisting of all the variations of one style of type. A typeface series is a grouping of the ranges of sizes of each typeface in a family.

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What are the two principal units of measure used in the graphic communi- cations industry? Points and picas.

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Review What is line length and how does it contribute to the legibility of printed materials? Line length is the distance from the left to right sides of a line or body of copy. When the width of the line corresponds to the eye span of the reader, the physical task of reading is made easier.

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ascender –The part of a letter that extends above the body height. Black letter –A classification of type consisting of faces that resemble the hand-drawn lettering of German monks in the Middle Ages. Body type –Type sizes that range from 4-point through 12-point that are used for setting straight matter.

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Brightness –For paper classification, the percent reflectance of blue light only, centering on the wavelength of 457 nm. Calligraphy –The art of hand-drawing letters, also known as manuscript writing. Character compensation –A method of tight-setting copy by electronically reducing the width of each character and space very slightly, which reduces the white space between characters.

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Characters –The individual visual symbols, such as letters, numerals, and punctuation marks, in a particular typeface. Composition depth –The space measuring from the beginning of a composition until the end of the composition. Condensed typefaces –Those intended to get more words in less space by narrowing the width (but not height) of the characters. They are used rather than going to a smaller typeface.

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cursive –A typeface designed to simulate handwriting, in which the letters are not joined. Definition –The sharpness or distinction of the printed image. Descender –The part of a letter that extends below the body or baseline.

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Display type –Type sizes above 12-point, used to emphasize the importance of a message and capture the reader’s attention. Em quad –In foundry type, a nonprinting type block that is a square of the type size, typically used to indent the beginning of the paragraph.

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. En quad –In foundry type, a spacing element half an em quad in width, typically used to separate words. Expanded faces –Those intended to fill more space without going to a larger point size. Also called extended faces, they consist of letters that have been made wider without increasing their height.

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Eye span –The width of body type a person can see with one fixation (sweep or adjustment) of the eye muscles. The normal eye span is about one and one-half alphabets. Font –In computer-based or phototypesetting composition methods, a font consists of all the characters that make up a specific typeface. A font in foundry type, where each character is on a separate piece of metal, consists of different quantities of each character in one size and style of type.

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Foundry type –Individually metal-cast type (letters, numbers, characters) that can be arranged to form words and sentences for printing on paper. Heavy elements –The darker strokes of a type character that give it identity. Ink darkness –A factor that affects the contrast of printed materials. Darkness depends on the ink’s covering power. Complete coverage hides the surface of the paper.

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Italic type –A slashed type, modeled on a form of handwriting. It was developed and first used by Aldus Manutius, a printer in Italy. Most Roman and sans serif faces have a companion italic of the same design. Justify –To adjust letter-spacing and word-spacing so lines of type in a block are all equal in length, resulting in even left and right margins.

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Kerning –A typesetting technique in which space between certain pairs of characters is tightened to improve appearance and readability. Legibility –A measure of how difficult or easy it is to read printed matter. Letterspacing –Changing the spacing between typeset letters, for better appearance or to fit copy in a given space.

60 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ligatures –Joined letter combinations, such as fi, ff, fl, ffi, or ffl, found in some typefaces. Light elements –The hairlines or other less-dark strokes that tie together the heavy elements of a type character. Line length –The distance from the left to right sides of a line or body of copy, usually measured in picas. Also called line width.

61 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Loose set –Term describing wider than normal letterspacing. Manuscript –A style of hand lettering used by the scribes of Germany, France, Holland, and other countries in the Middle Ages. Modern Roman typefaces –Typefaces that have increased contrast between very thin, light elements and heavy elements.

62 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Negative leading –The practice of reducing spacing below the type size, resulting in lines that are set very close together vertically. Novelty typeface –A typeface designed primarily to command special attention, express a mood, or provide a specific appearance for a theme or an occasion. Also called “decorative” or “occasional” typefaces.

63 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oblique –In electronic composition, the term used to describe a simulated italic character produced by slanting an upright Roman typeface. Old English –A text typeface often used for such applications as diplomas, certificates, and religious materials.

64 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oldstyle Roman typeface –A group of typefaces that have a rugged appearance, with relatively little contrast between heavy and light elements. They reflect the earliest Roman designs. Opacity –The quality of a paper that does not allow print from the opposite side to show through.

65 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Pi characters –In fonts for computer of phototypesetting, such symbols as stars, asterisks, arrows, percent signs, or checkmarks. In foundry type, such special characters are called sorts or dingbats. Point size –A vertical measurement used to identify or specify the size of a typeface. Measurement is from the top of the ascender space to the bottom of the descender space.

66 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Reverse type –White characters on a solid black or color background. Roman typeface –A type style based on the capital letters cut into stone monuments by the ancient Romans. Nicolas Jenson developed Roman lowercase letters that would merge readily into word forms. Jenson’s designs were the models used by type designers for hundreds of years.

67 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Sans serif –The classification for typefaces without serifs (stroke endings). This typeface classification is second only to Roman in popularity. Sans serif typefaces usually have heavy and light elements that are approximately the same thickness. Script typeface –A typeface designed to simulate handwriting, in which the letters are joined.

68 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Serif –The thickened tips or short finishing-off strokes at the top and bottom of a Roman typeface character. Set size –The width of a typeset character. Electronic composition makes it possible to change the set size of characters. Small caps –Capital letters smaller than the normal caps of the font.

69 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Smoothness –Freedom from surface irregularities. As a quality of paper, smoothness affects the visibility of printed images. Subiaco face –An early version of the Roman typeface, used for several books and named for the town where the printing was done.

70 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Text –Words, sentences, or paragraphs. Tight set –Term describing narrower than normal letterspacing. Tracking –A feature of computer typesetting programs that allows control of letterspacing and wordspacing together.

71 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Transitional Roman typeface –Typefaces that are a remodeling of Oldstyle faces. There is greater contrast between the heavy and light elements, and the characters are wider than the equivalent Oldstyle characters. Baskerville, a Transitional Roman, was the first typeface designed to print on smooth paper. Typeface –Distinctive designs of visual symbols used to compose a printed page.

72 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typeface family –A grouping consisting of all the variations of one style of type. Typeface series –The range of sizes of each typeface in a family. The common type sizes used in printing are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 point. Type metal –A low-melting-point alloy of lead, tin, and antimony used to cast foundry type.

73 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Typographer –A print designer who determines how a manuscript should be expressed in type as well as other details of reproduction. Typography –The art of expressing ideas in printed form through the selection of appropriate typefaces.

74 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Visibility –A legibility factor that results from the contrast of a dark typeface against the light reflected by the paper. Weight –The degree of boldness of the printing surface of a letter. The readable image might have a light, medium, bold, or extra-bold printing surface.

75 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Widow –A very short word, or part of a word, forming the final line of a paragraph. Wordspacing –Changing the spacing between typeset words, for better appearance or to fit copy in a given space. X-height –The height of the lowercase “x.” Also called body height.


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