Presentation on theme: "Classical Civilizations: Ancient India. Define the following: AsokaMaya Caste systemMahabharata Chandra Gupta IIMonsoons Chandragupta MauryaNirvana CitadelReincarnation."— Presentation transcript:
Classical Civilizations: Ancient India
Define the following: AsokaMaya Caste systemMahabharata Chandra Gupta IIMonsoons Chandragupta MauryaNirvana CitadelReincarnation EnlightenmentSiddhartha Gautama Four Noble TruthsVedas Indo-Aryans Karma
Aryans transform India Early people in the Indus Valley developed advanced civilization including trade (sea), agriculture (adapted to monsoon climate), sophisticated cities (Mohenjo-Daro), and complex institutions. The Aryans penetrate the Indian subcontinent, moving along river valleys, and establish their kingdoms.
The Aryans arrived in northern India and created a new social system that determined how people lived. People’s social status affects how they live. The Aryans believed in four classes, or jati. The top two jati were Brahmans, or priests, and Kshatriyas, or warriors who ran the government and army. The next class included common people, such as merchants and farmers. Below them were laborers and servants. The lowest level did not belong to any jati. These people, called the Untouchables, did work others did not want to do.
AryansDasas Name Appearance Language Communities Gods Draw and complete this chart using page 63 in the textbook. Be prepared to review in class.
The arrival of Indo-Aryans brought many changes to early India including new forms of religion (the Vedas), the formation of states, and the spread of language (sanskrit). Cause and Effect Draw a diagram to show how the Aryans changed the lifestyle of the Indians The epic poem the Mahabharata reflects the struggles among Aryans and between Aryans and non-Aryans.
Religion in India Hinduism is the belief in dharma and karma, or a belief that the sensory world is an illusion. Although it lacks a single founder, all Hindus share a common world-view and stress the interconnectedness of life. Many Indians who practice Hinduism develop a caste system to organize their society. Hinduism has influences much of the Indian culture, architecture, language, and literature.
Siddhartha & Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama seeks to end human suffering. He achieved enlightenment and becomes the Buddha. The Buddha preaches the Middle Way- a life of moderation.
The sangha, the religious community, becomes an important part of Buddhism. Buddhism in India rejects the caste system. Buddhism does not remain a major religion in India but spreads throughout Asia and eventually spreads to the West.
The Eight-Fold Path Right Views- seeing the world through the Four Noble Truths. Right Resolve- wanting to behave correctly and justly. Right Speech- telling the truth, speaking kindly. Right Conduct- being good.
Right Livelihood- having a job that supports a moral life. Right Effort- trying to keep your mind focused on the good. Right Mindfulness- paying attention to what you think and feel. Right Concentration- meditating as Buddha did to reach nirvana.
Reverse Venn Diagram Write the statements and use your notes and textbook to put the correct letter next to the correct statement. 1.Lacked a single founder. ____11. Founded in India. ____ 2.Eight-fold Path was used. ____12. Believed in Nirvana. ___ 3.Siddhartha was its founder. ____13. Still practiced in India. ___ 4.Believed in reincarnation. ____14. Written in the Upanishads.___ 5.Used the Four Noble Truths. ___15. Dharma was its doctrine. ___ 6.Shiva, Vishnu, & Brahma are gods. ___16. Taught interconnectedness. ___ 7.Taught Enlightenment. ____17. Moksha was taught. ____ 8.Practiced in the Vedic Age. ____18. Practiced by 1/5 of the world. ___ 9.Used caste system. ____19. Rejected the caste system. ____ 10.Created during a period of turmoil. ____20. Sangha is its religious order. ____ BuddhismHinduism A. B. C.
First Empires of India Almost 1,000 years after the Aryan migrations, many small kingdoms were scattered throughout India. Alexander the Great brought the Indus Valley under Greek control, but left the region immediately. A great Indian military leader, Chandragupta Maurya, seized power for himself.
Chandragupta Maurya unifies much of northern India through conquest. He creates a bureaucratic government and exempts farmers from military service. He relied on his advisor, Kautilya who was a member of the priestly caste, for advice. Chandragupta placed spies everywhere. (A spy is someone who secretly watches others.) Anyone suspected of working against the government was killed. He divided his empire into 4 provinces and each was headed by a royal prince. Each province was divided into local districts, who officials assessed taxes and enforced the law. The Mauryan Empire
The Rule of Asoka (Ashoka) In 301 B.C.E., Chandragupta’s son rules for 32 years, and then his grandson Asoka ruled. Asoka assumed the throne and brings the empire to its greatest heights. Asoka rules by Buddhist principles and spreads this religion. He practiced the concept of religious toleration or, acceptance of people who held different beliefs—and acceptance of people of all cultural backgrounds.
Spreading of Buddhism Asoka spread Buddhism across India. He built thousands of Buddhist monasteries. There Buddhists studied and meditated. Asoka also sent Buddhist missionaries to other lands. From India, Buddhism spread across most of Asia. Today, Buddhism is still a major religion in Tibet, Japan, Korea, and much of Southeast Asia.
He had extensive road systems built so he could improve communication. He had wells dug and rest houses built along his roads, and ordered the creation of watering places for animals. He died in 232 B.C.E., and empire crumbles. After Asoka’s death, the Andhra dynasty dominates India for hundreds of years. For 500 years waves of invaders come through India such as the Greeks, Persians, and Central Asians.
The Gupta Empire After 500 years of turmoil, a strong leader in Magadha, Chandra Gupta arose. The Gupta family unifies northern India into the Gupta Empire. Chandra Gupta I took on the title of “Great King of Kings” in 330 C.E. Most Indians are farmers living in small villages. Families may be headed by men or women.
The Gupta Empire makes advancements in religion, science, culture, and trade. Chandra Gupta’s son Samudra became king in 335 C.E. He was a lover of poetry and music. He had a warlike side and expanded his empire with 40 years of war and conquest. It gave him control over most of the lands immediately surrounding his father’s empire.
Chandra Gupta II became king in 375 B.C.E., and the Gupta Empire reaches its height. He ruled for 40 years and he strengthened his empire through peaceful means.
The Fall of the Gupta Empire During the 400s C.E., the Gupta Empire began to decline. Invaders from central Asia called the Huns attacked India. They took over much of northwestern India. By 600 C.E., the central government of the empire had broken down. India was once more divided into many separate kingdoms and the Gupta Empire was gone.