Presentation on theme: "The Odyssey Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1The Odyssey Introduction English 9 AThe Odyssey Introduction
2Simple Definition A story of Epic proportions Definition: An extended narrative poem recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroic episodes
3Purpose of an Epic Why do poets like Homer write these epics? To entertainTo provoke thought and emotionTo present a story about values and beliefs
4Qualities of an Epic Poem A physically impressive hero of national or historical performanceA vast setting covering much of the known world and sometimes even the Land of the DeadA quest or journey undertaken in search of something importantThe involvement of supernatural powersA basis in a specific culture or society
5Qualities of an Epic Hero Larger than life hero – usually maleEmbodies the ideals of a nation or raceTake part in long, dangerous adventures and accomplish great deeds that require great courage and superhuman strength
6Characteristics of Epic Poetry The CallThe ThresholdThe TestsInto the AbyssThe AtonementThe Return
7The Call Invites the hero into the adventure Offers opportunity to face the unknown and gain physical or spiritual valueMay choose to enter a quest or may be dragged into oneOften a “helper” leads the hero throughout the journey
8The Threshold “Jumping off point” for the adventure Once past the threshold, the hero enters the unknown, a world filled with challenges and dangersMentors or helpers can assist the hero, but they cannot take the journey for himIf hero is going to grow, he must accept all of the challenges and face them alone
9The Tests Hero faces a series of challenges or temptations Must identify and separate real helpers from “tempters” who try to pull the hero away from the pathTempters use fear, doubt, and distraction
10Into the Abyss The Abyss is the greatest challenge of the journey Hero faces his greatest fear, and must face it aloneTransformation is complete when hero overcomes his fearsGoes through a death and rebirth processSudden change in the way the hero views life
11The AtonementHero becomes at one with himselfHero is fully reborn
12The Return The hero returns to everyday life Hero discovers his gift May become rich or strong, a great leader, or enlightened spiritually
14Background 3000 years ago: 1000 B.C. Homer: Greek storyteller credited with putting together the Iliad and the Odyssey.Iliad:story of the 10 year Trojan War caused byParis of Troy who stole. . . Helen, wife of Menelaus, a Greek king (Greece is made up of a group of city states, each controlled by a king)Odyssey: story of Odysseus’ long and wayward return from the Trojan War
15Epics and ValuesEpics: a long narrative poem that tells of the adventures of heroes across great spans of time and place. Usually epics contain references to supernatural powers or events. Because the story covers so much territory, the epic contains the ideas, morals, themes and values of a culture from which it is created.Iliad: This is the primary story, the first and best example, the archetype of the war epic. It has the morals and values of the Greek society in war.Odyssey: This is the primary story, the first and best example, the archetype of the story of a long journey. Because the long journey can be seen as a metaphor for living one’s life, this story has been examined more closely. The Odyssey contains the morals, themes and values of the Greek society about adventure, hardship, and life.
16The Iliad: The War Story Background Violence and BrutalityTrojan War was fought over HelenMenelaus, king of Sparta, wanted his wife backAgamemnon, brother of Menelaus, gathered the army together.Agamemnon, got the wind to sail the ships to Troy by sacrificing his daughter to the gods.Greeks won the war through trickery, the Trojan Horse, created by Odysseus.Achilles, greatest Greek hero, died young in the last year of the war.Agamemnon, killed when he returned home by his wife who had taken a lover.
17The Wooden HorseA hollow wooden horse the Greeks built, supposedly to honor the Trojans. The Greeks pretended to leave and the horse was brought inside the gates of Troy. At night, the Greeks who were hidden inside slipped out and opened the gates to the city. The Greeks who had returned entered the city and slaughtered the Trojans. The idea for the wooden horse was Odysseus’.
18The Odyssey: Odysseus, A Hero in Trouble Odysseus is a very human hero. More than his strength, which was great, Odysseus was known for his clever and agile mind. It was he who thought of using the Trojan Horse to gain entrance to the impregnable walls of Troy.Odysseus:feels the effects of life after the great warhis reputation does nothing for him against the unthinking monsters he faces in his journey home.does not have the respect he once had even from the citizens of Ithica, his homehas the love and loyalty of his wife, Penelope, and son, Telemachus.did not want to leave his wife and family to go to war in the first place
19The Ancient World and Ours At this time in history, the idea of “king” must be taken with a grain of salt.The king of an area might simply by the person who owned the most goats.Treasure was really just anything that might have a use to the people taking it.
20A Search for Their Places in Life Odysseus:In a mid-life crisis.Searching for inner peace.Looking to re-join his family.Searching to find a balance in his life.A quest for his identity.Telemachus: In danger of losing his inheritance.Needs father for guidance and help. In search of his father.
21Relationships with the Gods Myths: stories that show the relationship between the people and the unknown or spiritual realm.Literary Technique: In these stories, the gods can be an alter ego, another version of the person’s personality, a reflection of the character’s best or worst qualities.The god who is on Odysseus’ side will reflect his better or stronger qualities.The god who opposes Odysseus will reflect the darker, more negative side of Odysseus’ personality.
22Poseidon Poseidon is the god who opposes Odysseus Poseidon, the god of the sea, tempestuous, violent and cruel.Odysseus is also quick to anger, violent and cruel at times.
23Athena Athena is a goddess who favors Odysseus Athena is the goddess of wisdomAthena is a war goddess who fights to protect the homeland.Odysseus is a wise manOdysseus is a warrior who is concerned with protecting his home.
24Who Was Homer? No one knows for sure. Greeks believed he was a blind minstrel from the island of Chios.Some scholars say that he never existed.Some scholars argue that Homer was a woman.Homer was a model for the wandering minstrels called rhapsodes – “singer of tales”.Historians and entertainers
25How were Epics Told?Stories like the Iliad and the Odyssey were originally repeated over and over by people that could not write.Singers would memorize the main story, and then improvise in order to fit a particular rhythm or meter.Repetition was important. The sea is always “wine-dark” and Athena is always “gray-eyed”.Homeric similes were used to explain unfamiliar items by comparing them to a familiar item.