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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 1 Textbook Cover PowerPoint Presentation Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox.

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Presentation on theme: "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 1 Textbook Cover PowerPoint Presentation Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 1 Textbook Cover PowerPoint Presentation Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois

2 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 2 Chapter 7 Color

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 3 Chapter 7 Overview Introduction The Psychology of Color The Color Spectrum –The color wheel Color Characteristics –Warm and cool colors –Neutral colors (Continued)

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 4 Chapter 7 Overview Color Systems –The Brewster system –The Ostwald system –The Munsell system Color Harmonies –Effect of light on color –Effect of adjacent colors (Continued)

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 5 Chapter 7 Overview Color Harmonies (Continued) –Effect of texture on color –Effect of color on space Color Decisions

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 6 Objectives Explain the perceptions linked to certain colors. Describe the standard color wheel. Evaluate a color according to hue, value, and intensity. Use a color wheel to plan various color harmonies. (Continued)

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 7 Objectives Describe three popular color systems. Identify seven common color harmonies. Explain the effect of light on color.

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 8 Introduction Color: –is the most exciting tool of the designer. –offers unlimited opportunities for decorating. –can help to create a mood within a room. –can communicate a wide range of emotions and feelings.

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 9 Using Color in Design Color brings this room to life. Century Furniture Company

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 10 The Psychology of Color Color influences human behavior. Research shows that certain perceptions are linked to certain colors. Color perceptions affect the way people feel about: –space –rooms –objects

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 11 Red Red: –is associated with danger, power, love, passion, anger, fire, and strength. –is bold, exciting, and warm. –stimulates the nervous system and increases blood pressure, respiration rate, and heartbeat. –is conspicuous wherever it appears and should be used with care.

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 12 Using Color in Design Red provides the excitement in this color harmony. Hickory Chair Company

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 13 Orange Orange: –is cheerful, warm, and less aggressive than red. –expresses friendliness, courage, hospitality, energy, and hope. –has stimulating properties similar to red, but not as intense. –mixes well with cool colors.

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 14 Using Color in Design The orange seat on this Chippendale chair complements its natural wood tone. Hickory Chair Company

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 15 Yellow Yellow: –is cheerful, friendly, and warm. –is associated with happiness, sunlight, sympathy, prosperity, cowardice, and wisdom. –makes a room appear light and airy. Pure yellows demand attention and should be used with care.

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 16 Using Color in Design This yellow bath is bright and cheerful. Manufactured Housing Institute

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 17 Green Green: –is the color of nature. –is refreshing, cool, peaceful, and friendly. –is often associated with hope, envy, and good luck. –mixes well with other colors, especially white.

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 18 Using Color in Design Lush greenery and deep green side chairs create a serene setting for this living room.

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 19 Blue Blue: –has the opposite effect of red. –is cool, calm, and reserved. –communicates serenity, tranquility, and formality. –can be depressing if too much is used. Lacquer, glass, and other shiny surfaces intensify blue.

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 20 Using Color in Design The blue sofa and chair seat increases the formality of the setting. Hickory Chair Company

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 21 Violet Violet: –is the color of royalty, dignity, and mystery. –is dramatic and works well with other colors, especially pink and blue. –is often used in small amounts as an accent. Popular violet hues include plum, eggplant, and lilac.

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 22 Using Color in Design Violet serves as the accent in this living room. Manufactured Housing Institute

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 23 Black Black: –is mysterious, severe, and dramatic. –symbolizes wisdom, evil, and death. –helps other colors appear more vivid when used in small amounts. –should be used sparingly as it can be oppressive and claustrophobic, especially in large amounts.

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 24 Using Color in Design Black provides drama in this hallway. Summitville Tile

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 25 White White: –is the symbol of youth, freshness, innocence, purity, faith, and peace. –can make other colors appear cleaner and livelier. –is used with traditional as well as modern styles. Creamy white creates a mellow background color.

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 26 Using Color in Design White makes this space appear larger and helps blend the various elements together. Manufactured Housing Institute

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 27 Color Decisions When making color decisions for a home, the color preferences of all family members should be considered. –Social areas should be decorated in colors that make all members feel comfortable. –Personal areas can be decorated using individual color preferences.

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 28 The Color Spectrum The color spectrum is the full range of all existing colors. It is composed of more than 10 million identified colors. This color array is found in the rainbow. Each distinctive color is derived from a few basic colors.

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 29 The Color Spectrum This is one visual representation of the color spectrum.

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 30 The Color Wheel The color wheel is the most commonly used tool for understanding color relationships in design. The middle ring of the color wheel consists of three types of colors: –primary colors –secondary colors –intermediate colors

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 31 The Color Wheel The middle ring shows normal color values, while tints appear on the inside circle and shades appear outside.

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 32 Primary Colors The three primary colors are: –yellow –blue –red Mixing, lightening, and darkening the primary colors can make all other colors.

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 33 Primary Colors The primary colors are equally spaced around the color wheel.

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 34 Secondary Colors The three secondary colors are: –orange –violet –green Mixing equal amounts of two primary colors makes these colors.

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 35 Secondary Colors Each secondary color is positioned between the two primary colors used to make it.

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 36 Intermediate Colors The six intermediate colors are: –yellow-green –blue-green –blue-violet –red-violet –red-orange –yellow-orange (Continued)

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 37 Intermediate Colors Intermediate colors are made by mixing one primary and one secondary color. The primary color is always listed first. Intermediate colors are also called tertiary colors.

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 38 Intermediate Colors Half the colors on the color wheel are intermediate colors.

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 39 Color Characteristics Each color has three characteristics: –Hue is the name of a color. –Value is the lightness or darkness of a hue. –Intensity is the brightness or dullness of a hue. Red, green, and blue-violet are examples of hues. (Continued)

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 40 Color Characteristics The hue is the characteristic that makes red different from green. The normal values of hues are shown in the middle ring of the color wheel. Yellow is the lightest normal value of all hues on the color wheel, while violet has the darkest value. (Continued)

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 41 Value Scale The value of a color can be changed by adding different amounts of black or white.

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 42 Color Characteristics The value of a hue can be made lighter by adding white. This produces a tint. –Example: Pink is a tint of red, made by adding white to red. Tints are shown in the inner ring of the color wheel. (Continued)

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 43 Color Characteristics A hue can be made darker by adding black. This produces a shade. –Example: Maroon is a shade of red, made by adding black to red. Shades are shown in the outer ring of the color wheel.

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 44 Color Characteristics The complement of a hue is the color directly opposite it on a standard color wheel. –Example: Green is the complement of red. A hue can be made duller or less intense by adding some of its complement.

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 45 Warm and Cool Colors Colors can be grouped as warm colors or cool colors. –Warm colors, also called advancing colors, are orange, yellow, and red. –Cool colors, also called receding colors, include green, blue, and violet.

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 46 Warm and Cool Colors Cool colors dominate the left room, while warm colors prevail on the right. Sauder Woodworking CompanyShae Lubecke, ASID, Illinois Chapter

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 47 Neutral Colors The neutral colors are: –white, which is totally absent of color –black, which is a mixture of all colors –gray, which is a combination of black and white Brown, tan, and beige are considered near-neutral colors.

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 48 Neutral Colors Neutral colors often serve as background colors because they blend well with others. Century Furniture Company

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 49 Color Systems Several color systems or theories are recognized, each with a different group of basic colors. Some color systems incorporate both psychological and physical factors. The three most common systems are: –Brewster system –Ostwald system –Munsell system

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 50 The Brewster System The Brewster system is the standard color wheel, also called Prang system. It is based on the primary hues (red, yellow, and blue), which cannot be mixed from other pigments. There are 12 hues in the Brewster color wheel. (Continued)

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 51 The Brewster System The Brewster system produces three secondary colors--green from yellow and blue, violet from blue and red, and orange from red and yellow. Each of the secondary colors can be mixed equally with a primary color to form an intermediate hue.

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 52 The Brewster Color Wheel

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 53 The Ostwald System The Ostwald system uses yellow, orange, red, purple, blue, turquoise, sea green, and leaf green hues with white and black added to the hues. The system produces 672 hues and eight neutrals. Cool hues are on half the circle, while warm hues are on the other half. (Continued)

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 54 The Ostwald System The configuration of the Ostwald system is a three-dimensional double cone. The color wheel has yellow, red, blue, and green equidistant from one another. Between each pair of hues are five intermediate hues. The result is a circle of 24 hues, plus six other hues to complete the color range. (Continued)

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 55 The Ostwald System Colors are most saturated at the equator where the cones meet. Pure white is at the top of the central axis and black is at the bottom. Colors are lighter in the top cone and darker in the bottom cone.

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 56 The Ostwald Color System

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 57 The Munsell System The Munsell system describes and analyzes color in terms of hue, value, and chroma (color). The chromatic colors are based on five principle hues: red, yellow, green, blue, and purple. Hue is the color name and is indicated by the letter H and a fraction. (Continued)

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 58 The Munsell System Value (lightness or darkness) is shown on the central axis as nine visible steps. The darkest value is at the bottom and the lightest value is at the top. The horizontal band extending outward from the value axis shows chroma. The Munsell color wheel has a total of 100 different colors.

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 59 The Munsell Color System

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 60 Color Harmonies Pleasing colors create color harmony. The seven color harmonies are: –monochromatic –analogous –complementary –split-complementary –triadic –double-complementary –neutral

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 61 Monochromatic Color Harmony A monochromatic color harmony is based on a single hue of the standard color wheel. This is the simplest color harmony. Variation is achieved by changing the value and intensity of the hue and by adding accents of neutral colors.

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 62 A Monochromatic Color Harmony Lexington Furniture Industries

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 63 Analogous Color Harmony An analogous color harmony is based on combining three to five adjacent hues on the color wheel. It combines related hues such as yellow, yellow-orange, and orange, or green, blue-green, and blue. One color should dominate.

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 64 An Analogous Color Harmony Lynn Aseltine-Kolbusz, ASID, Illinois Chapter

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 65 Complementary Color Harmony A complementary color harmony is made by combining two hues directly opposite each other on the standard color wheel. Generally, one color is allowed to dominate, and various values and intensities are used to lessen the contrast.

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 66 A Complementary Color Harmony

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 67 Split-Complementary Color Harmony A split-complementary color harmony is made by combining a hue with the two hues on both sides of its complement. One color is generally used as a dominant color while the other two provide contrast.

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 68 A Split-Complementary Color Harmony

69 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 69 Triadic Color Harmony A triadic color harmony is the combination of any three colors that are equally distant from each other on the standard color wheel. For example, yellow, blue, and red—the primary colors —form a triadic color scheme.

70 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 70 A Triadic Color Harmony Suzanne Mauzey, ASID, Illinois Chapter

71 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 71 Double-Complementary Color Harmony The double-complementary color harmony combines two sets of complementary colors. Any combination of pairs may be used as long as each pair is composed of complementary colors.

72 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 72 A Double-Complementary Color Harmony Paul Schlismann, ASID, Illinois Chapter

73 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 73 Neutral Color Harmony Neutral color harmonies combine black, white, and gray. Shades of brown, tan, and beige may also be used. Touches of accent colors are usually added for interest.

74 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 74 A Neutral Color Harmony Hickory Chair Company

75 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 75 Effect of Light on Color Color requires light for visibility. Light is available as natural and artificial light. Only a narrow band of the total light spectrum is visible to humans. Reflected rays of light give each object its color. (Continued)

76 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 76 Effect of Light on Color White objects reflect almost all the color in light, while black objects absorb most of it. Natural light changes throughout the day. Cool light intensifies blue and violet, but neutralizes red, yellow, and orange. Warm light does just the opposite. (Continued)

77 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 77 Effect of Light on Color Colors for large spaces should be chosen under the light source specified. Cool-color harmonies may need warm light sources for low lighting levels. Warm-color harmonies may appear too warm if brightly lit with a warm source. Lighting that is shielded tends to cool a room.

78 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 78 Effect of Adjacent Colors Colors appear to change when placed near other colors. Some hues placed side-by-side seem to produce unity or restfulness. –Example: blue next to blue-green or green Opposite colors on the color wheel tend to sharply contrast. –Example: blue next to orange

79 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 79 Using Color These complementary hues gain intensity when used in close proximity to each other.

80 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 80 Effect of Texture on Color Textures affect the appearance of color. Flat, shiny surfaces reflect light and can enhance color brightness and intensity. Dull, soft, mottled, or heavily textured surfaces make a color seem darker and less intense. Keep textures subdued when using strong colors or bold patterns.

81 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 81 Using Color The rough textures of the carpeting and wicker seating deepen the green color. Lexington Furniture Industries

82 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 82 Effect of Color on Space Colors appear darker and brighter when close to the viewer. Colors seem to gain intensity when they cover large areas. Light or cool colors appear to recede, while dark or warm colors seem to advance.

83 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 83 Color Decisions Pleasing color harmonies exist in sources other than standard color schemes. Drapery and upholstery fabric, area rugs, wallpaper, carpeting, and art object offer inspiration for creating color harmonies. (Continued)

84 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 84 Color Decisions Myriad color harmonies exist in nature. Consider the earth colors—pigments found in iron oxides and minerals in rocks and soil. –Typical earth colors include ocher (yellow), sienna (reddish orange or reddish brown), red oxide (red), umber (brown), and terra verde (green). (Continued)

85 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 85 Color Decisions Consider basic planning guidelines: –Color schemes look best when one color dominates. –The dominant color should cover about two-thirds of the room area. –Subordinate colors help blend large furniture pieces into the background. (Continued)

86 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 86 Color Decisions Consider basic planning guidelines (Continued): –Accent colors add flair to the decor. –Bold, warm, colors appear to advance. –Surfaces with rough textures make colors appear darker. –Dark values and warm hues make rooms appear smaller. (Continued)

87 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 87 Using Color The deep hue used on the walls of this home office creates a quiet, cozy atmosphere. Armstrong World Industries

88 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 88 Color Decisions Consider basic planning guidelines (Continued): –Large areas look best when covered with low-intensity colors. –Neutrals enhance and strengthen other colors around them. –Cool, dull, and light colors recede. –Light values and cool hues make rooms appear larger. (Continued)

89 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 89 Using Color Light colors on the walls, ceiling, and chairs make this small dining room seem spacious. Southface Energy Institute, Atlanta, Georgia

90 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 90 Color Decisions Consider basic planning guidelines (Continued): –A room's exposure to natural light affects color choice. –Sunny rooms facing south or west will appear cooler with blues and greens. –Shaded rooms facing north or east will seem warmer with reds and oranges. (Continued)

91 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 91 Color Decisions Consider basic planning guidelines (Continued): –Colors appear different under different lighting conditions. –Incandescent lighting normally adds glow to colors. –Contrasting colors are emphasized when used together.

92 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 92 Glossary analogous color harmony A color harmony based on combining three to five adjacent hues on the color wheel. color spectrum The full range of all existing colors. complement The color directly opposite a color on the color wheel. complementary color harmony A color harmony made by combining two hues directly opposite each other on the color wheel.

93 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 93 Glossary double-complementary color harmony A color harmony based on combining two sets of complementary colors. hue The name of a color; the characteristic that makes each color different. intensity The brightness or dullness of a hue. intermediate colors Colors made by mixing a primary color with a secondary color.

94 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 94 Glossary monochromatic color harmony A color based on a single hue. neutral color harmonies Color harmonies made by using combinations of black, white, and gray; or shades of brown, tan, and beige. primary colors Red, yellow, and blue; colors from which all other colors are made. secondary colors Orange, green, and violet; colors made by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors.

95 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 95 Glossary shade A darkened value of a hue made by adding black to a hue. split-complementary color harmony A color harmony based on combining one hue and the two hues on both sides of its complement. tint A lightened value of a hue made by adding white to the hue.

96 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to produce for educational use only. 96 Glossary triadic color harmony The combination of any three colors that are equally distant from each other on the standard color wheel. value The lightness or darkness of a hue.


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