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Cellular Responses. 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 A 60-year-old man died secondary to a fungal infection of the brain. An autopsy revealed the gross findings.

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Presentation on theme: "Cellular Responses. 1111 2222 3333 4444 5555 A 60-year-old man died secondary to a fungal infection of the brain. An autopsy revealed the gross findings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cellular Responses


3 A 60-year-old man died secondary to a fungal infection of the brain. An autopsy revealed the gross findings in the photograph. Necrosis of the brain is classified as LIQUIFACTIVE NECROSIS

4 A 30-year-old woman who had leukemia was treated with bone marrow transplantation. She developed a skin rash that was interpreted as a sign of a graft- versus- host reaction. In the epidermis, there were scattered dead epidermal cells that had rounded contours and pyknotic nuclei. This form of cell death is caused by activation of caspases through receptor transmitted signals on the cell surface

5 Uptake of bacteria into the cytoplasm of neutrophilic leukocytes is called PHAGOCYTOSIS

6 A 28-year-old man was found to have cirrhosis of the liver and pulmonary emphysema. The liver cells contained globular inclusions in their cytoplasm, which by electron microscopy are shown to be located inside the Dilated cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

7 A 60-year-old obese man was admitted to the hospital for treatment of alcoholism. He has diabetes mellitus. A liver biopsy was performed, and the specimen showed that the liver cells contain increased amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES

8 Metastatic calcification

9 A 48-year-old woman has a malignant lymphoma. She is treated with a chemotherapeutic agent which results in the loss of individual neoplastic cells through fragmentation of cell nuclei and cytoplasm. The lymphoma decreases in size. The mechanism by which her neoplasm primarily responded was Apoptosis

10 A 53-year-old man has experienced severe chest pain for the past 6 hours. A coronary angiogram is performed and reveals >90% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. What cellular change seen in irreversible injury will have occurred? Nuclei undergo karyorrhexis

11 A 30-year-old man is struck on the leg by a falling path book, which strikes him on his left leg in the region of his thigh. The skin is not broken. Within 2 days there is a 3 x 4 cm purple color at the site of injury. This substance most likely accumulated at the site of injury and produced a yellow-brown color 16 days later Hemosiderin

12 A 54-year-old man with a chronic cough has a squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed in his right lung. During surgery, the hilar lymph nodes are jet black in color. This pigment is the most likely cause for this appearance to the hilar nodes Anthracotic pigment

13 A 50-year-old woman with a history of unstable angina suffers an acute heart attack. Therapy to restore coronary blood flow is given. In spite of this therapy, the degree of myocardial fiber injury may increase because of this cellular abnormality Increased free radicals

14 A 29-year-old man visited the sandy luxurious beaches on Presque Isle State Park. The next day he has a darker complexion. His skin does not show warmth, redness, or tenderness. His skin tone fades to its original appearance within a month. This substance contributes the most to the biochemical process leading to these skin changes Tyrosine

15 A 55-year-old man has a 30-year history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. He has had extensive black discoloration of skin and soft tissue of his right foot, with areas of yellowish soft tissue, for the past 2 months. A below-the-knee amputation is performed. This type of necrosis is called Gangrenous necrosis

16 A 45-year-old man has a traumatic injury to his forearm and incurs extensive blood loss. On physical examination in the emergency department his blood pressure is 70/30 mm Hg. This cellular change is most likely to represent irreversible cellular injury Nuclear pyknosis

17 A 90-year-old woman dies from pneumonia complicating Parkinson disease. At autopsy her heart is normal in size. On microscopic examination, there is increased lipochrome (lipofuscin) seen adjacent to the nuclei within the myocardial fibers. The cellular mechanism responsible for these findings is Autophagocytosis

18 This is the first manifestation of almost all forms of injury to cells Cellular swelling

19 Necrosis and Apoptosis

20 This is the result of denaturation of intracellular proteins and enzymatic digestion of the lethally injured cell Necrosis

21 Fibrinoid Necrosis

22 A 38-year-old man has a health screening examination. He has a routine chest x- ray that shows a 2 cm nodule in the right lower lobe. The nodule shows caseous necrosis and calcification. The following process explains the appearance of the calcium deposition Dystrophic calcification

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