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Earth Boot Camp 4.7A Examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Boot Camp 4.7A Examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Boot Camp 4.7A Examine properties of soils, including color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of plants

2 #12 STAAR 2013, RC3; Supporting; 5.2D
1. A student conducts an investigation using four identical bottles, each with a hole in the bottom. The student fills each can with a different type of soil and then adds 200 milliliters (ML) out of water to each bottle. The beakers below show the amount of water that drains through the soil and out the bottom of each can A B C D Some plants have roots that reach very deep underground. Which type of soil will most likely stop water from flowing to the deepest roots of these plants?

3 #12 STAAR 2013, RC3; Supporting; 5.2D
1. A student conducts an investigation using four identical bottles, each with a hole in the bottom. The student fills each can with a different type of soil and then adds 200 milliliters (ML) out of water to each bottle. The beakers below show the amount of water that drains through the soil and out the bottom of each can A B C D Some plants have roots that reach very deep underground. Which type of soil will most likely stop water from flowing to the deepest roots of these plants?

4 2002 TAKS Information Booklet, #12
2. Three soil samples were tested to see how much water each could hold. The same amount of water was added to each funnel of soil. Very few plants would probably grow in the clay because the water would — A fail to reach the roots of the plants B become too cloudy C run through the soil too quickly D become poisonous to the plants

5 2002 TAKS Information Booklet, #12
2. Three soil samples were tested to see how much water each could hold. The same amount of water was added to each funnel of soil. Very few plants would probably grow in the clay because the water would — A fail to reach the roots of the plants B become too cloudy C run through the soil too quickly D become poisonous to the plants

6 2003—#3 (73%) 3. A student wants to find out which type of soil holds the most water. He uses four identical pots with holes in the bottom. He fills each pot with a different type of soil and waters the pots with the same amount of water. How can he find out how much water stays in the soil in each pot? A By planting seeds and measuring plant growth in each pot B By measuring the amount of water that drains from each pot C By observing which soil looks wettest after the water has been added to the pots D By feeling the soil before and after adding water to each pot

7 2003—#3 (73%) 3. A student wants to find out which type of soil holds the most water. He uses four identical pots with holes in the bottom. He fills each pot with a different type of soil and waters the pots with the same amount of water. How can he find out how much water stays in the soil in each pot? A By planting seeds and measuring plant growth in each pot B By measuring the amount of water that drains from each pot C By observing which soil looks wettest after the water has been added to the pots D By feeling the soil before and after adding water to each pot

8 2004 TAKS Information Booklet, #20
4. The pictures show a method used to collect data in an investigation. Different kinds of materials were mixed with 100 grams of garden soil. An equal amount of water was added to each mixture. Which of these was this investigation designed to answer? A How well each material mixes with garden soil B How well each mixture holds water C How well each material supports plants D How well each mixture keeps its texture when wet

9 2004 TAKS Information Booklet, #20
4. The pictures show a method used to collect data in an investigation. Different kinds of materials were mixed with 100 grams of garden soil. An equal amount of water was added to each mixture. Which of these was this investigation designed to answer? A How well each material mixes with garden soil B How well each mixture holds water C How well each material supports plants D How well each mixture keeps its texture when wet

10  2004—#27 (42%) 5. Similar containers were filled with different types of soil. Holes were poked into the bottom of each container, and 300 milliliters of water were added. The water that dripped out was collected and measured. According to the information in the table, which type of soil retained water best? A Potting soil B Sandy soil C Gravel D Clay

11  2004—#27 (42%) 5. Similar containers were filled with different types of soil. Holes were poked into the bottom of each container, and 300 milliliters of water were added. The water that dripped out was collected and measured. According to the information in the table, which type of soil retained (keep) water best? **So since the water is staying in the soil, you’re looking for the LEAST amount of water collected in the cups** A Potting soil B Sandy soil C Gravel D Clay

12 2009—#15 (67%) 6A. Some students added 500 milliliters of water to equal amounts of four different samples of soil. In this investigation, which sample of soil held the most water?

13 2009—#15 (67%) 6A. Some students added 500 milliliters of water to equal amounts of four different samples of soil. In this investigation, which sample of soil held the most water?

14 6B. Which of the following soils would be best for growing bean plants
6B. Which of the following soils would be best for growing bean plants? A Sandy soil with big rocks B Loam that contains humus C Gravel and rocky soil D Clay soil that contains sand

15 6B. Which of the following soils would be best for growing bean plants
6B. Which of the following soils would be best for growing bean plants? A Sandy soil with big rocks B Loam that contains humus (humus is found in topsoil & contains decayed plants & animals – VERY good for growing plants) C Gravel and rocky soil D Clay soil that contains sand

16 7. Which of the following types of soil will be the hardest for plants to grow in? A Sandy soil that retains a great deal of water B Loam that contains humus and drains well C Topsoil that drains well and contains nutrients D Potting soil that is designed to improve plant growth

17 7. Which of the following types of soil will be the hardest for plants to grow in? A Sandy soil that retains a great deal of water (you want some water to get to all the plants’ roots) B Loam that contains humus and drains well C Topsoil that drains well and contains nutrients D Potting soil that is designed to improve plant growth

18 8. Plants grow very well in topsoil because it is very rich
8. Plants grow very well in topsoil because it is very rich. All of these processes help form the rich topsoil EXCEPT— A ocean tides B decay of organisms C weathering of rocks D erosion from wind and water

19 8. Plants grow very well in topsoil because it is very rich
8. Plants grow very well in topsoil because it is very rich. All of these processes help form the rich topsoil EXCEPT— A ocean tides B decay of organisms C weathering of rocks D erosion from wind and water

20 9. Four soil samples of equal volume were put in funnels with filter paper mL of water was added to each sample and the water that flowed out the bottom of the funnel was collected and measured. What can you determine about the soil samples from the data? A Soil sample R retained the most water. B Soil sample T was the driest soil. C Soil sample Q has more organic matter. D Soil sample S was about half sand.

21 9. Four soil samples of equal volume were put in funnels with filter paper mL of water was added to each sample and the water that flowed out the bottom of the funnel was collected and measured. What can you determine about the soil samples from the data? A Soil sample R retained the most water. (Retained = kept water in soil – it has the smallest # so Soil R kept in the most water) B Soil sample T was the driest soil. C Soil sample Q has more organic matter. D Soil sample S was about half sand.

22 Water Sand 10. A sample of water and sediment was taken from a river. The sand and rocks were allowed to settle in a jar for three hours, as shown here. Which of these best explains why the rocks are below the sand? A The sand is less dense than the rocks. B The water temperature is high enough to melt sand. C Sand particles dissolve more in water than rocks. D The sand particles trapped enough air to make them float. Rocks

23 Water Sand 10. A sample of water and sediment was taken from a river. The sand and rocks were allowed to settle in a jar for three hours, as shown here. Which of these best explains why the rocks are below the sand? A The sand is less dense than the rocks. B The water temperature is high enough to melt sand. C Sand particles dissolve more in water than rocks. D The sand particles trapped enough air to make them float. Rocks

24 Top Soil Clay Soil Sandy Soil
11. The three soil samples shown above were tested to see how much water would run through the funnel in a given amount of time. The same amounts of soil and then water were added to each funnel and allowed to drain for 1 minute. Which soil retained the least amount of water? A Top soil B Clay soil C Sandy soil D Rocky soil

25 Top Soil Clay Soil Sandy Soil
11. The three soil samples shown above were tested to see how much water would run through the funnel in a given amount of time. The same amounts of soil and then water were added to each funnel and allowed to drain for 1 minute. Which soil retained the least amount of water? A Top soil (kept in the least amount – looking for the most water in cup) B Clay soil C Sandy soil D Rocky soil

26 12. Top soil has a rough texture with spaces between the grains
12. Top soil has a rough texture with spaces between the grains. This allows water to filter quickly through the soil. Clay soil, however, is composed of smoother particles that stick together with little or no spaces between. What would happen if clay were used as a water filtration method? The water – A would flow freely through the clay. B would not flow easily through the clay. C in the clay would evaporate very quickly. D would change the clay into sedimentary rock.

27 12. Top soil has a rough texture with spaces between the grains
12. Top soil has a rough texture with spaces between the grains. This allows water to filter quickly through the soil. Clay soil, however, is composed of smoother particles that stick together with little or no spaces between. What would happen if clay were used as a water filtration method? The water – A would flow freely through the clay. B would not flow easily through the clay. C in the clay would evaporate very quickly. D would change the clay into sedimentary rock.

28 Top Soil Clay Soil Sandy Soil Potting Soil
13. The four soil samples shown above were tested to see how much water would run through the funnel in a given amount of time. The same amounts of soil and then water were added to each funnel and allowed to drain for 1 minute. Which soil retained the most water? A Top soil B Clay soil C Sandy soil D Potting soil

29 Top Soil Clay Soil Sandy Soil Potting Soil
13. The four soil samples shown above were tested to see how much water would run through the funnel in a given amount of time. The same amounts of soil and then water were added to each funnel and allowed to drain for 1 minute. Which soil retained (kept in) the most water? A Top soil B Clay soil C Sandy soil D Potting soil

30 14. Which of the following has the GREATEST effect on the ability of soil to retain water? A The age of the soil particles B  The size of the soil particles C  The color of the soil particles D  The luster of the soil particles

31 14. Which of the following has the GREATEST effect on the ability of soil to retain (keep in) water? A The age of the soil particles B  The size of the soil particles C  The color of the soil particles D  The luster (shiny) of the soil particles

32 15. A student put some sand, clay, and water into a bottle and shook the bottle. Then he put the bottle down. After two hours, the bottle looked like the drawing above. What can the student conclude based on what he sees in the bottle? A The water is heavier than the grains of clay and the grains of sand. B  The grains of clay are heavier than the grains of sand and the water. C  The grains of sand are heavier than the water and the grains of clay. D  The water, grains of clay, and grains of sand are all of equal weight.

33 15. A student put some sand, clay, and water into a bottle and shook the bottle. Then he put the bottle down. After two hours, the bottle looked like the drawing above. What can the student conclude based on what he sees in the bottle? A The water is heavier than the grains of clay and the grains of sand. B  The grains of clay are heavier than the grains of sand and the water. C  The grains of sand are heavier than the water and the grains of clay. D  The water, grains of clay, and grains of sand are all of equal weight.

34 16. Through which type of soil will water move most quickly. A
16. Through which type of soil will water move most quickly? A Sandy soil with large pores B  Humus soil with small pores C  Clay soil with tiny pores D  Solid rock with no pores

35 16. Through which type of soil will water move most quickly. A
16. Through which type of soil will water move most quickly? A Sandy soil with large pores B  Humus soil with small pores C  Clay soil with tiny pores D  Solid rock with no pores

36 17. To find out which soil absorbs moisture BEST, each container shown above must— A be made of a different material B  have soil from the same place C  be tested by the same person D  contain the same amount of soil

37 17. To find out which soil absorbs moisture BEST, each container shown above must— A be made of a different material B  have soil from the same place C  be tested by the same person D  contain the same amount of soil

38 18. A student is comparing the erosion of different types of soil and rocks. She makes piles of the materials that are equal in size and shape. She slowly pours the same amount of water over each pile. Then she measures the height of each pile. The table below shows her results Which pile of material eroded the MOST? A Sand B  Pebbles C  Gravel D  Soil

39 18. A student is comparing the erosion of different types of soil and rocks. She makes piles of the materials that are equal in size and shape. She slowly pours the same amount of water over each pile. Then she measures the height of each pile. The table below shows her results Which pile of material eroded (move/flow) the MOST? A Sand B  Pebbles C  Gravel D  Soil (biggest difference =44 so it moved the most)

40 19. Your teacher has brought a sample of water to class
19. Your teacher has brought a sample of water to class. The sample contains a mixture of small rocks, sand, and silt (very fine soil) obtained from Buffalo Bayou. After a few hours, the sample settles. Which diagram shows the layers in which the sediments will settle? A C B D

41 19. Your teacher has brought a sample of water to class
19. Your teacher has brought a sample of water to class. The sample contains a mixture of small rocks, sand, and silt (very fine soil) obtained from Buffalo Bayou. After a few hours, the sample settles. Which diagram shows the layers in which the sediments will settle? A C B D

42 20. According to the soil profile pictured to the right, in which layer are most of the soil’s nutrients MOST LIKELY found? A Layer 1 B Layer 2 C Layer 3 D Layer 4

43 20. According to the soil profile pictured to the right, in which layer are most of the soil’s nutrients MOST LIKELY found? A Layer 1 B Layer 2 C Layer 3 D Layer 4

44 21. Which of the following properties MOST directly affects the way water drains through soil? A Color B Absorbency/Porosity C Odor D Density

45 21. Which of the following properties MOST directly affects the way water drains through soil? A Color B Absorbency/Porosity C Odor D Density

46 Start of MS ?’s 22. Students are investigated properties of soil. They picked up the soil and rubbed it back and forth between their fingers. They noticed the soil was made of many different sized particles and felt smooth. Which property of soil are the students examining? A. Color B. Mass C. Fragrance D. Texture

47 Start of MS ?’s 22. Students are investigated properties of soil. They picked up the soil and rubbed it back and forth between their fingers. They noticed the soil was made of many different sized particles and felt smooth. Which property of soil are the students examining? A. Color B. Mass C. Fragrance D. Texture

48 23. Soil in one location is different than soil in another location
23. Soil in one location is different than soil in another location. To better understand soil and how it is different, geologist observe and measure the soil’s – A. length B. mass C. properties D. gravity

49 23. Soil in one location is different than soil in another location
23. Soil in one location is different than soil in another location. To better understand soil and how it is different, geologist observe and measure the soil’s – A. length B. mass C. properties D. gravity

50 24. Geologist can tell a lot about soil from its color
24. Geologist can tell a lot about soil from its color. Nutrient rich soil is generally – A. darker in color B. gray in color C. red in color D. colorless

51 24. Geologist can tell a lot about soil from its color
24. Geologist can tell a lot about soil from its color. Nutrient rich soil is generally – A. darker in color B. gray in color C. red in color D. colorless

52 25. Students conducted an experiment to study the effects of soil on a tomato plant. They placed the plant in four different types of soil to determine which type would best support plant growth. They placed the plants by a window and watered each with equal amounts of water very day for two weeks. What is the variable in this simple experiment investigation? A. soil B. tomato plant C. water D. sunlight

53 25. Students conducted an experiment to study the effects of soil on a tomato plant. They placed the plant in four different types of soil to determine which type would best support plant growth. They placed the plants by a window and watered each with equal amounts of water very day for two weeks. What is the variable in this simple experiment investigation? A. soil B. tomato plant C. water D. sunlight

54 26. Which of the following has the greatest effect on soil’s capacity to retain water? A. soil color B. soil particle size C. soil texture D. soil fragrance

55 26. Which of the following has the greatest effect on soil’s capacity to retain (keep) water? A. soil color B. soil particle size C. soil texture D. soil fragrance

56 27. In an activity, students measured how much water was held by different soil types. Each pot had 100 milliliters of water poured into it According to the table, which material absorbed the most water? A. clay B. gravel C. sand D. potting soil Material Water Drained Out Clay 30 mL Gravel 90 mL Sand 40 mL Potting soil 25 mL

57 27. In an activity, students measured how much water was held by different soil types. Each pot had 100 milliliters of water poured into it According to the table, which material absorbed the most water? A. clay B. gravel C. sand D. potting soil Material Water Drained Out Clay 30 mL Gravel 90 mL Sand 40 mL Potting soil 25 mL

58 28. Which type of soil would be least likely to support the growth of a rose bush? A. potting soil B. loamy soil C. topsoil D. clay soil

59 28. Which type of soil would be least likely to support the growth of a rose bush? A. potting soil B. loamy soil (have lost of humus) C. topsoil D. clay soil

60 29. Students are selecting the soil to use in a group project requiring the planting of a bean seed. They want to select a solid that is rich in nutrients. Which of the following properties would help students determine which type of soil to use for their plant project? A. texture B. color C. particle size D. density

61 29. Students are selecting the soil to use in a group project requiring the planting of a bean seed. They want to select a solid that is rich in nutrients. Which of the following properties would help students determine which type of soil to use for their plant project? A. texture B. color C. particle size D. density

62 30. The table shows soil content and its associated color
30. The table shows soil content and its associated color. The Red River on the Oklahoma-Texas border is named for the colored sedimentary rocks that make up the riverbed According to the table, which mineral is most likely contained in the riverbed?? A. carbon B. calcite C. iron D. glauconite Content Color Calcite White Carbon Black Glauconite Green Iron Red

63 30. The table shows soil content and its associated color
30. The table shows soil content and its associated color. The Red River on the Oklahoma-Texas border is named for the colored sedimentary rocks that make up the riverbed According to the table, which mineral is most likely contained in the riverbed?? A. carbon B. calcite C. iron D. glauconite Content Color Calcite White Carbon Black Glauconite Green Iron Red

64 31. Soil with humus helps support the growth of plants
31. Soil with humus helps support the growth of plants. Which of the soil types below would most likely contain the greatest amount of humus? A. sand B. gravel C. loam D. clay

65 31. Soil with humus helps support the growth of plants
31. Soil with humus helps support the growth of plants. Which of the soil types below would most likely contain the greatest amount of humus? A. sand B. gravel C. loam D. clay

66 32. Which of the following soils has the roughest texture. A
32. Which of the following soils has the roughest texture? A. potting soil B. silt C. clay D. sand

67 32. Which of the following soils has the roughest texture. A
32. Which of the following soils has the roughest texture? A. potting soil B. silt C. clay D. sand

68 Soil Type ??? Clay Red, fine texture, small particles Sand Tan, large particles, course texture Potting soil Black, medium coarse texture, medium particles 33. Based on the information provided in the table above, what would be the most appropriate title for the second column? A. soil color B. soil behavior C. soil properties D. soil texture

69 Soil Type ??? Clay Red, fine texture, small particles Sand Tan, large particles, course texture Potting soil Black, medium coarse texture, medium particles 33. Based on the information provided in the table above, what would be the most appropriate title for the second column? A. soil color B. soil behavior C. soil properties D. soil texture

70 34. Which tool would be useful in measuring the amount of water that drained from a pot of soil? A. beaker B. collecting net C. pan balance D. ruler

71 34. Which tool would be useful in measuring the amount of water that drained from a pot of soil? A. beaker B. collecting net C. pan balance D. ruler

72 35. Environmental scientists focus on studying soil for all the following reasons EXCEPT— A. to focus on environmental quality as it relates to soil B. to investigate issues like soil contamination C. to analyze how human use impacts local soil D. to study how soil can be used destructively and ineffectively

73 35. Environmental scientists focus on studying soil for all the following reasons EXCEPT— A. to focus on environmental quality as it relates to soil B. to investigate issues like soil contamination C. to analyze how human use impacts local soil D. to study how soil can be used destructively and ineffectively

74 36. Students extend a soil investigation over a four-week period in order to conduct two more trial runs before reporting their final conclusions. What is the purpose in repeating the investigation? A. To make accurate measurements B. To collect detailed information C. To increase reliability of results D. To form a testable hypothesis

75 36. Students extend a soil investigation over a four-week period in order to conduct two more trial runs before reporting their final conclusions. What is the purpose in repeating the investigation? A. To make accurate measurements B. To collect detailed information C. To increase reliability of results D. To form a testable hypothesis

76 37. Upon completion of the soil investigation, students conducted that the soil’s ability to retain water was an important factor in sustaining plant growth. Which of the following questions would be appropriate when testing this hypothesis? A. Do plants grow better by adding water to the soil? B. How does water change the texture of the soil? C. Which type of soil has the capacity to hold in the most water? D. How much water is needed to test soil retention?

77 37. Upon completion of the soil investigation, students conducted that the soil’s ability to retain water was an important factor in sustaining plant growth. Which of the following questions would be appropriate when testing this hypothesis? A. Do plants grow better by adding water to the soil? B. How does water change the texture of the soil? C. Which type of soil has the capacity to hold in the most water? D. How much water is needed to test soil retention?

78 38. Students are examining properties of soil, such as a soil’s ability to support the growth of diverse plants. Which would be most effective to use for an extended period of time when observing plant growth in soil? A. beaker B. planetarium C. terrarium D. statium

79 38. Students are examining properties of soil, such as a soil’s ability to support the growth of diverse plants. Which would be most effective to use for an extended period of time when observing plant growth in soil? A. beaker B. planetarium C. terrarium D. stadium


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