2P5 AssessmentTo achieve P5 you need to describe:The different structures within the heart (i.e. atria, ventricles and so forth).The different types of blood vessels (such as the arteries) outlining their structure and function, i.e. thick walls and taking blood away from the heart.The role of the circulatory system both at rest and during exercise, i.e. delivery of oxygen to the muscles and removal of waste products.To achieve M2 you need to explain the function of the cardiovascular system:• How does it work?• How is each part of the system designed to meet its function?
3The Blood Vessels Introduction We have a variety of different vessels within the cardiovascular system to deliver and remove nutrients and waste products.Blood in the arteries is bright red, as it is carrying oxygen. It drops off the oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide as it moves through the capillaries. By the time it reaches the veins and venules it is a much darker blue/red colour.
45 main blood vessels Arteries Veins Carry blood away from the heart Where gas exchange takes placeCarry blood back to the heartArteriesArteriolesCapillariesVenulesVeins
5Arteries & ArteriolesArteries are large blood vessels, that carry blood away from the heart.Thick Elastic muscular wallsArtery walls contain elastic cartilage and smooth muscle, This allows the arteries walls to contract and relax to send blood to all parts of the bodyThis process is known as perstalsis, and is how smooth muscle contractsCarry Oxygenated bloodApart from the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs to get Oxygen
6Arteries & Arterioles Aorta Small round lumen Operate under high pressureArteries don’t contain valves, as the blood is moving quickly under high pressure, so there is no chance of backflow.AortaMain artery leaving the heartIt soon splits into smaller vessels – ArteriolesArterioles deliver the blood to the capillaries
7Capillaries Smallest blood vessels Found in all cells of the body Just one cell thickVery thin wallsAllows oxygen and other nutrients to diffuse through the cell walls.Blood flows very slowly through the capillaries so that this can happenEffectively in the capillaries, the blood unloads the Oxygen and picks up carbon dioxide and lactic acid (the waste products of metabolism)
8Veins & VenulesThe blood feeds from the capillaries back to the venules and then the veins.Larger oval lumenMeans blood flows at lower speed and pressure.Thinner and less muscular than arteriesHave some smooth muscleContracts to help sent the blood back to the heart
9Veins & Venules Deoxygenated blood Carry blood back to the heartGenerally working against gravityParticularly blood that is going back to the heart from the legs or arms, as it is below the heart.ValvesTo prevent the blood from flowing back once the smooth muscle relaxes.Prevents pooling, particularly in the legsDeoxygenated bloodApart from pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart.
10Task…You are going to outline the function and characteristics of each of the 6 types of Blood Vessels that serve the circulatory system…Including:Physical characteristics that classify each blood vessel.What their function is within the CIRCULATORY system?What do they transport?
11BloodIt is the medium in which all the cells are carried to transport nutrients and Oxygen (O2) to the cells of the body.It carries:- Oxygen, Glucose, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Hormones, Enzymes, Platelets, Carbon Dioxide and Electrolytes.Plasma: straw coloured liquid that all solids are carried within.Made up of 4 components:Red blood cellsWhite blood cellsPlateletsPlasma
12Red Blood CellsRed blood cells make up 99% of the population of the blood cells in the bodyThey are RED in colour due to the presence of a protein called HAEMOGLOBIN and absolutely loves Oxygen (massive attraction!)Making RED blood cells soul purpose to transport OXYGEN!
13White Blood CellsThey are colourless and transparent and fewer in number to red blood cells (1:700)The role of White blood cells is to fight infection as they are part of the immune system.They destroy bacteria and other dangerous organisms… thus fighting potential infection.
14Platelets They act by stopping blood loss through clotting They become sticky when in contact with air to form the initial stage of repair to the damaged tissue…They act by stopping blood loss through clottingYet platelets need a substance called x-Factor 8 to enable them to become active and do their job/clot.