Presentation on theme: "The Abyssal Zone Created by Shalynn Lee. The Abyssal Zone What is it? The Abyssal Zone is 1 out of the 5 pelagic layers in the ocean. This zone contains."— Presentation transcript:
The Abyssal Zone What is it? The Abyssal Zone is 1 out of the 5 pelagic layers in the ocean. This zone contains a very deep depth. “Abyss” comes from the Greek word “ ἄ βυσσος” meaning bottomless. The Abyssal Zone is also called Abyssopelagic, and the Abyss.
Did you know that the depth of the Abyssal zone is 4,000-6,000 meters below sea level? The water in the abyssal zone is dark that it never receives daylight. It also has an extreme amount of pressure underwater. Humans have only begun to explore the Abyssal Zone.
As you can see, in this diagram the ocean is divided into 5 sections. Starting near the surface of the water is the Euphotic zone and at the bottom of the sea floor is the Hadal zone. The Abyssal Zone, however, is located between the bathyal zone and the hadal zone. As the water gets deeper, it becomes much darker and colder. Pelagic Layers
The Depths of the Pelagic Layers Meters Type of Zone Here is another way to look at the depths of the 5 pelagic layers. You can see that the water is getting deeper and deeper each time. Euphotic Zone: 0-200m Disphotic Zone: 200- 1000m Bathyal Zone: 1000-3000m Abyssal Zone: 3000- 6000m Hadal Zone: 6000-sea floor
The 5 pelagic zones have many different names 1 st layer: The Epipelagic Zone /The Euphotic Zone /The Sunlit Zone. 2 nd layer: The Mesopelagic Zone /The Disphotic Zone /The Twilight Zone. 3 rd layer: The Bathypelagic Zone /The Bathyal /The Midnight Zone. 4 th layer: Abyssopelagic Zone /The Abyssal Zone /The Lower Midnight Zone. 5 th layer: Hadalpelagic Zone or The Hadal Zone.
In the Abyssal zone, the average water temperature is 2°C to 3°C. However, the temperature can reach up to 464 °C when the water is near hydrothermal vents. At that temperature, the water is far above the boiling point, yet it doesn’t boil because of the pressure in the water. Hydrothermal vents
Organisms that live in the abyssal zone are adapted to live in the rough environment with high pressure and living in the darkness. As you can see, these magnificent sea creatures look much more mysterious and scary-looking conpared to the fishes we see near the surface of the water. Here are some examples of sea creatures that live in the Abyssal Zone. Black SwallowerTripod FishAngler Fish Giant Squid Gulper eelDumbo Octopus
There are many animals living in the Abyssal Zone. But sadly there NO plants found in the deeper areas of the ocean. This is because sunlight can’t reach the Abyssal Zone so photosynthesis cannot occur. The ocean waters are pitch dark, so daylight can’t be found in these areas of the ocean.
What is a Biome? A Biome is an area where plants and animals are adapted to live a specific type of environment. But in this cause, it’s the ocean. Did you know that the Abyssal Zone biome is the largest biome in the world? The biome covers about 60% of the Earth’s surface.
The Abyssal Zone is an interesting water layer. A lot happens under the waters where many scuba divers cannot travel to. In fact, the deeper areas of the ocean has almost never been explored before. The only way to explore very deep waters is to use underwater robotics. Robots such as Alvin and Jason are excellent robots that can go deep into the ocean.
Alvin Alvin is a robot that is specifically used to explored very deep waters. Alvin can plunge to a maximum depth of 4,500 meters. That means that Alvin was able to cross the 3,000 meter mark where the Abyssal Zone begins. What’s special about Alvin is that it is built out of titanium, which can help it avoid being crushed by the water pressure. In 1977, Alvin made the first discovery of hydrothermal vents in the Pacific Ocean.
Jason Jason is another underwater robot that explores deep into the ocean. To control Jason, scientists can stay on deck to guide it. Unlike Alvin, Jason can go as deep as 6,500 meters. That means that Jason can reach the Hadel Zone! Jason also has an robotic arm that can take samples of rocks, water and sea life.
As you can see, the Abyssal Zone and the Hadel Zone would have never been explored without scientists inventing underwater robots. We should all be thankful to have those scientists inventing new things everyday to make ours be amazed.