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Travels on the Equator: We Got Solar Energy. Table of Contents Manny in the The Photosynthesis.................

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Presentation on theme: "Travels on the Equator: We Got Solar Energy. Table of Contents Manny in the The Photosynthesis................."— Presentation transcript:

1 Travels on the Equator: We Got Solar Energy

2 Table of Contents Manny in the The Photosynthesis................. pg.8 Solar Energy and Heat........... pg.11 Colors and Heat Thermometers................. pg.19 Thermometer Activity........... pg. 26 Vocabulary................... pg. 30 References..................... pg.33 2

3 On this Solar adventure, Manny travels to the Amazon, home to a fertile rainforest! Wow, I have never seen so many trees in my life! 3

4 The sun is so bright down here! 4

5 Welcome to the Amazon Manny! I am Jenny, your guide here, and you are right, it is very hot here. That is because we are on the Equator. The Equator? The Equator is an imaginary line that divides the earth in half into two hemispheres. A hemisphere simply means half of a ball. In this case, the earth is like a ball, revolving on an axis. Everything to the North of the equator is the Northern Hemisphere, everything to the South is the Southern Hemisphere. All I know is that I like the heat here. Back home it was snowing! 5

6 Norhern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Equator South Pole North Pole “In fact, as you well know, it is not hot everywhere in the world. At the two ends of the earth’s axis lie the South and North Pole, where everything is frozen all year long. Here at the equator we receive the most direct rays from the sun. Sunlight only reaches the Poles during half of the year!“ Earth’s Axis Amazon Rainforest 6

7 Manny: “You mean it is dark half of the year?” Jenny: “Yes Manny. This is because the earth is tilted on its axis, and it is always pointing in the same direction. As a result, the poles only receive sunlight during half of the year when they are facing the sun. That means that while it is dark in the North Pole, it is sunny in the South Pole. As the earth travels around the sun, this reverses and South Pole becomes dark and the North Pole becomes light. Sunny in the North Pole Dark in the South Pole Sunny in the South Pole Dark in the North Pole Axis But as long as you are on the equator, you receive about the same amount of sunlight from the sun every day of the year! Also, since the equator faces almost directly at the sun, the sunlight that hits the Equator is more direct and powerful than the sunlight at the poles, which is indirect and less powerful. 7 Spring

8 That is the reason the forest here is so lush and vibrant with life. All living things depend on the light from the sun to grow, and the forest here receives more direct sunlight. Look at all the trees around you. Each one of them receives nutrients from the sun in a process called photosynthesis. Photo what? 8

9 Photosynthesis. That is what we call the process that plants undergo to store the energy from the sunlight in their cells. The plants take in the radiant energy from the sun and turn it into glucose, or simple sugars. The plants keep some sugars in their leaves, stems, fruits, and roots. It is called chemical energy. The energy stored in plants feeds the plan itself and every living thing on earth. So you mean that the plants use the energy from the sun like food? That is right Manny. In fact, all the things you eat, since they come from animals or plants, depend on the sun as well! We use the energy to grow and move. We use it to pump our blood, think, see, hear, taste, smell, and feel. We use energy for everything we do! 9

10 Well some animals need it for more than that too! Do you see this lizard? It is a cold blooded animal. That means that its body is not heated by its body. It needs to lay on the rocks here to be warmed by the sun. Wow, I just thought I needed the sun to see! 10

11 Ouch! That rock is very hot! Be careful Manny! The rocks here get very hot in the middle of the day when the sun has been shinning very brightly on them for several hours! But why is the grass on the bank of the river not so hot? 11

12 “Well first of all, Solar energy turns into heat when it hits objects. That is how the lizard and the rock, and the grass get warm. The light from the sun turns into heat when it hits the rock and the lizard, just as it does when it hits our clothes and our skin. However, the reason some are hotter than others is that different things absorb the sunlight differently! “ 12

13 That is also why you feel warmer in the sun than in the shade. So everything absorbs sunlight? 13

14 “Not quite. When sunlight hits any substance, it is either reflected or absorbed. When sunlight is absorbed, then it can turn into heat and warms the object it hits. If instead it reflects, like it does off of water, then the heat is not absorbed.” water Sunlight Reflects 14

15 Oh I understand. But then what makes the rocks get hotter than the grass? Look at the rock and at the grass. What colors are they? The Rock is dark grey and the grass is bright green. 15

16 Well, after I put my hand on the rock and then on the grass, then I can say that maybe the rock is hotter because it is darker than the grass. Very good. That is a great observation! An observation is a statement about how you see and experience the world around you. Now suppose I told you that the difference in the amount of sunlight that a substance absorbs depends on its color. What could you say about the rock and the grass? 16

17 Stated a what? Well done! Manny, I don’t know if you realize it, but you have just stated a hypothesis using your observation! A hypothesis. You have made an educated guess about how sunlight is absorbed based on the things you are learning from me, and the things you see and touch here in the rainforest. 17

18 But then is it true? Well, let’s test your hypothesis. Let’s see if we can determine if it is true or false that darker objects absorb more light than lighter ones. How do we do that? 18

19 I hear my dad talking about it all the time every time he checks on the weather. He says that the thermometer indicates that it is hot or cold outside of our house back home. Well, luckily I have a thermometer with me. Have you seen one of these? 19

20 Not really, it seems too complicated. Well, and have you ever read the temperature with your father? Well, here is your opportunity to learn to use one! It’s really not that difficult. Just place one end of the thermometer on the rock and see what happens! 20

21 The red line stopped at the number 54. That number refers to the temperature. We measure temperature in degrees Celsius, or °C for short. So the way to read the thermometer is to say: The thermometer reads 54 degrees Celcius or 54°C. That is right Manny. The red line is made up of a liquid that expands when it gets hot. When you place the thermometer on the rock and wait for the liquid to expand, then the thermometer will measure the temperature of the rock. Look! The red line is rising. 21

22 That is right Manny. That is why you almost burned your hand on the rock! Now put your thermometer in between the grass and see what temperature it reads. Wow, that is a lot of degrees! 22

23 Oh yea, 30 degrees Celsius! Now, what is higher, 30 degrees Celsius or 54 degrees Celsius? 30 degrees Celsius... It stopped at 30. That is right Manny. In fact, the higher the temperature, the hotter an object is. Well 54 is bigger than 30, so 54 degrees Celsius is higher than 30 degrees Celsius? 23

24 Conclude? Yes Manny, did what you read on the thermometer confirm what you thought? Does it confirm your hypothesis that the darker objects absorb more light than lighter objects? That is right Manny. A thermometer can be very useful. Especially for measuring the temperature of things that are too hot to touch. By using the thermometer you have now conducted an experiment. You have tested your hypothesis to see if it is true or not. What do you conclude? Wow, so the thermometer also tells me that the rock is hotter than the grass! 24

25 Well the rock which is darker than the grass was hotter, so yes, the measurement does confirm my hypothesis. See! Now when you go back home you can help your dad measure the temperature! Safe travels back home! 25

26 Thermometer Activity Manny has now returned home from his trip to the Amazon. Unfortunately, he has forgotten how to use and read the thermometer properly. Use the thermometers provided to recreate what Manny learned in the Amazon. Materials needed: Two plastic cups, White sand, Black dirt, Two thermometers. 26

27 Thermometer Activity Directions: Fill one of the plastic cups with the sand and the other one with the dirt. Place the cups in a sunny area. After they have been exposed to the sun for some time, place the thermometers in each cup. Measure the temperature for each cup and record in the following pages. Repeat three times and state your conclusion on the page provided. 27

28 Thermometer Activity. Recorded in degrees Celcius (°C). Black FlourWhite Sand First Measurement Second Measurement Third Measurement White Sand Black Dirt 28

29 State Your Conclusion I conclude... 29

30 Vocabulary Equator : An imaginary line that divides the earth in half into two hemispheres (go back to page 5 to find out more!). Hemisphere: One half of a ball. In this case, the earth is like a ball, revolving around its axis (go back to page 5 to find out more). Photosynthesis: What we call the process that plants undergo to store the energy from the sunlight in their cells (go back to page 8 to find out more). 30

31 Vocabulary Observation: A statement about how you see and experience the world around you (go back to page 16 to find out more). Hypothesis : An educated guess about the world around you based on experience and observation. (go back to page 17 to find out how Manny made an educated guess about how sunlight is absorbed based on the things he learned from observing the rain forest). 31

32 Vocabulary Thermometer: A scientific instrument that is used to measure temperature (go back to page 19 to learn how to use one). Experiment: The testing of a hypothesis of the world around you using scientific instruments. Conclusion: The result obtained after conducting an experiment that is used to confirm or disprove a hypothesis (go back to page 24 to learn more about experiments, then after conducting your thermometer activity, write your own conclusion!). 32

33 References Cover Page: – Earth From Space. Photograph. Newscom Focal Point. Web. 11 April 2012.. Page 3: – Amazon Rainforest. Photograph. New 7 Wonders. Web. 22 Mar. 2012.. Page 4: – Arnan. “Forest.” Cartoon. Web. 22 Mar. 2012.. – Bayonne Board of Education. “Sun Cartoon.” Cartoon. Web. 22 Mar. 2012.>. Page 4,5, 8-11, 13, 15-25: – Balsano, Miriam. "Little Geeks." Cartoon. The Art of Miriam Balsano. 20 Feb. 2011. Web. 22 Mar. 2012.. Page 5, 8-11, 13, 15-25: – Traveling Teacher’s Online Photostream. Photographs. June 2010. Web. 22 March 2012.. Page 6: – World Map With Equator. Photograph. Wikipedia. Web. 25 March 2012.. 33

34 References Page 7: – Axis of the Earth. Photograph. Mystery Class: Tracking Sunlight to Solve a Mystery. Web. 12 April 2012.. Page 10: – Lizard Wallpaper. Photograph. Free Computer Wallpapers. Web. 11 April 2012.. Page 12, 14: – Evapotranspiration Balance. Photograph. NASA Earth Observatory. Web. 11 April 2012.. Page 19,20: – Thermometer Rising Temperature. Photograph. 123 Royalty Free Stock Photos. Web. 11 Apil 2012.. Page 20-24: – Temperature Rises Thermometer. Photograph. Los Angeles Times Pressmen Club. Web.. 34

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