Recommended levels The body stores : 3 – 4 g Each unit of red blood cells – 200mg Daily losses – 1mg Age range Young to adult
Vulnerability to siderosis Exposure to iron oxide e.g. steel workers, mine workers. Unregulated intake of iron(food and drinks e.g. beers, and other drinks with high iron content).
CAUSES The main cause of siderosis is iron This iron is mostly inhaled during welding or other activities which involve iron.
Cont.… Different types of siderosis are caused by the accumulation of iron in different body parts. For example: superficial siderosis is caused by the chronic deposition of iron into the neuronal tissues.
Cont.… Siderosis bulbi is caused by the deposition of iron into the eyes. Hepatic siderosis is caused by the deposition of abnormal quantity of iron in the liver. Excessive accumulation of hemosiderin(iron- containing protein) can also cause siderosis. Eating food with high content of iron is the least cause of siderosis.
Superficial Siderosis Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a disease of the brain resulting from chronic deposition in neuronal tissues, associated with cerebrospinal fluid.
Cont.… This occurs via the deposition of hemosiderin in neuronal tissues and it is associated with neuronal loss, of neuronal cells SYMPTOMS Sensorineural hearing loss Ataxia Pyramidal Signs Dementia Disturbances of the bladder Anisocoria
Siderosis Bulbi Siderosis Bulbi is the deposition of ionised iron in the in the intraocular tissues resulting in toxicity. It is the development of Fe into the eye causing injury as the material chemically reacts with tissues and cells. Iron oxide present in welding material, foundries and iron-ore mining are some of the causative agents. Siderosis bulbi can also be caused by eye contact with powdered hematite.
Symptoms The eye has a rusty appearance due to accumulation of powdered hematite or iron-ore dust.
Heterochromia iridium In anatomy, heterochromia refers to a difference in colouration, usually of the iris but can also be of skin or hair. One iris may be completely different from the other. If heterochromia forms the main part of examination, the most likely cause is siderosis bulbi. In siderosis bulbi, the iris is usually darker while the pupil usually shows signs of penetrating injury.
SIGNS OF SIDEROSIS BULBI Iris heterochromia Pupil dilation and poor reaction to light cataract Brown deposits on the anterior lens Peripheral retinal pigmentation which eventually progresses to diffuse retinal pigmentation Secondary glaucoma due to accumulation of Iron(Fe) in the trabecular meshwork.
Cont. In siderosis bulbi, the darker eye has poor vision and the pupil is usually dilated and does not react to light.
Prevention of Siderosis Siderosis can be prevented by taking precaution, not to inhale more iron or iron oxide containing dust or fumes at work:
Cont. Ventilate your work area
Cont. Wearing an inhalation mask or face shield when around dust particles or when performing metal grinding using hoods that allow air to circulate from outside the work area.
Cont. Avoid using sand abrasives quitting smoking to lessen your chances of getting other kinds of lung disease. People with high iron content should avoid eating food with high iron content.
Treatment of Siderosis There is no current cure for siderosis, only treatments to help alleviate the current symptoms and to help prevent the development of further symptoms. For example, in superficial siderosis the source of bleeding source can be performed; this has proved to be effective in halting the development of further symptoms that have already been presented. Avoiding exposure to iron dust or fumes will prevent any further accumulation of particles in the body tissues.
Cont. The use of iron chelating drugs and steroids has been explored but they have proven to be largely unsuccessful thus far so the use of drugs to treat siderosis is still being investigated. THANK YOU! ANY QUESTIONS?