2What is Value?It is the Element of Art that has to do with the darkness or lightness of a color.Value depends on how much light a surface reflects or if there are shadows that overlay the object.Black-and-white photography depends entirely on value to define its subjects.Value is directly related to contrast.
3Leonardo Da Vinci Head of a Bearded Man (so-called Self-portrait c
4One grotesque profiles, The Royal Collection, England
24Requirements:Copy, enlarge or crop, the original picture that you brought from home. No changes are allowed. Draw realistically.Use graphite pencil and eraser only.Use at least five different values (excluding black and white), and two shading techniques studied in class (hatching, crosshatching, stippling, and blending).Neatness, and good craftsmanship is expected.
26Shading Techniques Hatching: It can be achieved by using a quick back and forth motion with the pencil.Pressure can be added to the pencil point to create darker lines, or reduced to create smooth, light lines.Normally, hatching is used diagonally and for drawings that require less detail or little shading.The lines must ideally follow the same direction to constitute hatching.
28Cross hatching: It uses the same principle techniques as hatching. Lines are drawn and overlapped by another set of lines in another direction.Pressure can be added again to create darker shades, or more lines can be added over hatched areas to create deeper textures and dark shading tones.The closer the lines are, the darker the shading is on the drawing. This method is also popular for pen and marker pen drawings.
30Stippling:Stippling, or “pointillism”, is a common form of shading used for ink drawings or pictures that do not require detailed shading.Light dots are created on the area which requires shading and, much like cross-hatching, the dots are built upon, overlapped and made darker to indicate different shading tones.The closer the dots are to each other, the darker the shading in that area.Highlights can be formed from the spaces between the dots and variations in shading can be easily created by darker or larger dots in a shaded area.
32Blending:Unlike hatching or cross-hatching, blending does not leave patches or white areas within the shading, and is instead blended into the picture and other shading tones.A small amount of pressure is applied to the pencil in blending to create a small layer of graphite (if a pencil is used), which is gradually built up by more smooth graphite layers.To create a smoother effect, use the pencil on a right angle, not the tip.
34Do you know how to correctly hold your pencil when you shade? When shading, place your pencil between the thumb and the first 3 fingers below the palm of your hand. Keep your wrist locked and use your elbow and shoulder to move the pencil, rather than your wrist and fingers.Since you will usually be shading with the side rather than the pointed tip of the pencil, you will want to produce a soft stroke.Accentuate the subtleties of your subject by applying your pencil with a soft pressure, as if you are caressing the drawing surface.Remember not to darken your shading too much too soon. You always can build the layers up as you hatch. This process will help you refine the form.By slowing down, you will be able to refine the shapes of the shadow shapes over a longer period of time, which will help you avoid over-modeling (“modeling” means shading to render the form).The ability to draw with a steady, controlled movement that comes from mastering these techniques will not only improve your drawings, but will also translate to improved painting skills later when you pick up a paint brush.Practice these techniques and take your drawings to a higher level!
35Different Media for Drawing Graphite PencilCharcoalPenInkScratchboard
36New Vocabulary WordsMedia vs. Medium: Media is the plural for Medium. It refers to the materials that we use to create artworks.Value: Element of Art that relates to how light or dark a color is. Shadows, darkness, contrasts, and light are all values in artwork.Values Scale: The range of values, or shades of gray in an image that shows a smooth gradation of values.Shading Techniques: Hatching, crosshatching, stippling, and blendingContrast: Contrast is created by using opposites near or beside one another, such as a light object next to a dark object or a rough texture next to a smooth texture.
37Highlight: Small areas on a painting or drawing on which reflected light is the brightest. Shadow: An area that is not or is only partially illuminated because an opaque object is between the area and the source of light. Or, the image cast by an object blocking rays of illumination.Graphite: Mineral that is known for its use in pencils, where it is commonly called lead (not to be confused with the metallic element lead).Mid-tones: Medium dark grays (or values).Study (in Art): In art, a study is a drawing, sketch or painting done in preparation for a finished piece, or as visual notes. A study can have more impact than a more-elaborately planned work, due to the fresh insights the artist is gaining while exploring his/her subject. The excitement of discovery can give a study vitality. Even when layers of the work show changes the artist made as more was understood, the viewer shares more of the artist’s sense of discovery. Written notes alongside visual images add to the import of the piece as they allow the viewer to share the artist's process of getting to know the subject.