Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13. Section 1: Society in the 1920s Women stood at the center of much of the social change of the early 1920s. In 1920, women also gained the."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1: Society in the 1920s Women stood at the center of much of the social change of the early 1920s. In 1920, women also gained the right to vote.
Young women, called flappers, led a revolution in dress, hairstyles, and manners. Women began to cut or “bob” their hair, hemlines shortened, and makeup was worn. They were not afraid to drink or smoke in public. These changes shocked many in American society.
Jeannette Rankin of Montana became the first women to be elected to Congress, and by 1924 two states had female governors. By 1928, there were 145 women serving in 38 state legislatures. Women were slowly gaining political power.
The 1920s also saw Americans on the move. The rural-urban split became greater as farmers became economically stressed while the rest of the country enjoyed prosperity. Nearly six million farmers left the land and went to the city in search of jobs.
African Americans African Americans also flocked North to find jobs and escape Jim Crow laws. After being treated decently in Paris, the second class citizenship of the deep south was no longer tolerable. The Great Migration is the movement of southern African Americans to the north. Activity p. 455 answer Map Question
Immigration Canadians and Mexicans came to find jobs. So many Mexicans lived in Los Angeles that they developed a distinct neighborhood called the barrio. As more people moved to the city, many wealthier, white city dwellers moved to the suburbs.
Hero’s Charles Lindbergh, Amelia Earhart, and George Herman “Babe” Ruth. Lindbergh was the most famous of all, with his solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. The development of the mass media helped to bring the lives of these heroes into homes across the country
Babe Ruth slugged his way into American hearts.
Section 2: Mass Media and the Jazz Age The development of mass media such as radio, movies, and newspapers and magazines revolutionized American culture. Previously the United States had been a collection of regional cultures, so interests attitudes, and even clothing styles varied by region. The same movies were seen all over the country. Radio also united Americans. By 1922, more than 500 stations were broadcasting across the country.
RADIO Networks such as the National Broadcasting Company (NBC) made sure Americans all over the country were listening to the same programming.. Activity p. 461 Compare the percentages of increase of the various media.
MUSIC Jazz, which came from the African-American culture of the South, grew in popularity throughout the nation. Best place to listen to jazz was in New York City’s Harlem.
Harlem Renaissance, a literary flowering of African-American writers such as James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, and Langston Hughes.
Activity: Read the two Langston Hughes Poems THE NEGRO SPEAKS OF RIVERS by: Langston Hughes ( ) I'VE known rivers: I've known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and I've seen its muddy bosom turn all golden in the sunset. I've known rivers: Ancient, dusky rivers. My soul has grown deep like the rivers.
I, too, sing America. by: Langston Hughes ( ) I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. Nobody'll dare Say to me, "Eat in the kitchen," Then. Besides, They'll see how beautiful I am And be ashamed-- I, too, am America. What does this poems suggest about the poet’s vision of the future?
Other modern writers such as Sinclair Lewis, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway also began to create a truly American literature.
Night Hawks by Edward Hopper In the world of art, painters such as Edward Hopper and Rockwell Kent showed the darker side of modern industrial life, Georgia O’Keefe showcased the unique landscapes of the American southwest.
Section 3: Cultural Conflicts Change brought conflict. Prohibition, the Eighteenth Amendment part of the Progressive Movement, banned all manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. Bootleggers, illegal providers of alcohol, which again highlighted a rural-urban split. While Kansas had 95% compliance with the liquor law, New York City had only 5% compliance. Speakeasies—or illegal bars—flourished in urban areas
Illegal alcohol led to organized crime groups also often moved into gambling, prostitution, Al Capone, Chicago was one of the worst. The federal government responded with improved law enforcement and established the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)under J. Edgar Hoover.
RELIGION Conflict focused on evolution. Fundamentalist Christians= those who believe that the Bible is factually correct and inspired by God, opposed the teaching of evolution because it contradicts the Biblical account of creation. Scopes Monkey Trial teacher, John Scopes, accused of illegally teaching evolution in his classes.
Clarence Darrow supporting evolution former presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan taking a stand against it. – Scopes found guilty, his punishment was minimal, and much of the country felt that he was right to teach evolution.
As African Americans moved North, racial tension in Northern cities increased. Northern workers afraid African-American workers, who would work for less, could take all the jobs. The Ku Klux Klan saw a revival as it ballooned to four million members.
The Klan broadened its bigotry to anyone who was not white, American, and Protestant. African Americans dream of a new homeland and support the efforts of a Marcus Garvey and his Universal Negro Improvement Association.