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Redefining America: Key Findings from the 2006 Latino National Survey.

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Presentation on theme: "Redefining America: Key Findings from the 2006 Latino National Survey."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Redefining America: Key Findings from the 2006 Latino National Survey

3 Latino Diversity 44 million Latinos in the US Census Bureau (American Community Survey, Released August 2006) Mexican 63.9% Puerto Rican 9% Cuban 3.5% Salvadoran 2.9% Dominican 2.7% Guatemalan 1.7% Colombian 1.8% ALL OTHERS 14.3% Native-born (not Island-born): 35.4% Foreign-born 61% Island-born PR 3.6% No high school diploma 43% College graduate 11.1% Latino National Survey (unweighted N) Summer 2006 *Mexican 66.1% (5704) *Puerto Rican 9.5% (822) *Cuban 4.9% (420) *Salvadoran 4.7% (407) *Dominican 3.9% (335) *Guatemalan 1.7% (149) *Colombian 1.6% (139) *All Others 7.6% *Native-born 28.4% (2450) Foreign-born (adults) 66.2% (5717) *Island-born PR 5.4% (467) *No high school diploma 37% *College graduate 16.2%

4 A Multiplicity of Identities Simultaneous strong sense of pan-ethnic identity, national origin identity, and American- ness  Puerto Ricans illustrate best that identities are not mutually exclusive  Cuban pan-ethnicity surprisingly high  Mexican sense of American-ness high considering the share foreign born American National Origin Pan- Ethnic Mexican Cuban Puerto Rican All Cells are percent expressing “somewhat” or “very strongly”

5 Extent of Pan Ethnic Identification by National Origin Variation among national origin groups modest Lowest groups are Cubans and Spaniards Highest groups are Central Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominicans Order of bars- So. Amer; Cen. Amer.; Mex.; Puerto Rican; Cuban; Dominican; Salvadoran; Guatemalan; Spaniards

6 Forced Choice: Boxing in Latinos However, forced choice reveals more traditional patterns:  American-ness suffers among foreign-born but improves greatly across generations  Puerto Ricans least “Latino” and most stand alone as a group  Share of Mexicans choosing pan-ethnicity equals share choosing national origin We caution that this is an artificial choice, one not required of people in the real world Preference for pan-ethnicity still more than double what was found in LNPS 1989 Distribution of Single-Identity Preference by National Origin Group American National Origin Pan- Ethnic Mexican Cuban Puerto Rican All Cells are percent of group choosing that identity

7 Latinos and Racial Identification

8 More complex than previously understood with confounding notions of phenotype and skin-tone. Self-identification distribution among LNS respondents: 67.2% some other race 22.8% white.8% black Fully 51% of respondents say Latino/Hispanic is a different race! But … is Race the same as Skin-tone? Racial Identification

9 Determinants of Racial Self-identification Racial identification doesn ’ t obviously vary by citizenship or generation in US. With one exception, no obvious differences by national origin or state of residence. – Cubans (and Floridians) are outliers (25% difference with six other major Latino ethnic groups). – As previously documented, Cuban Americans are more likely than other Latinos to self-identify as white. But …. Even Cuban response is a big shift from LNPS in Cuban Distributionwhiteother ButButButBut

10 Skin-tone Question: “ Latinos can be described based on skin tone or complexion shades. Using a scale from 1 to 5 where 1 represents very dark and 5 represents being very light, where would you place yourself on that scale? ” A plurality selects the exact middle category of skin- tone. Percent Very dark = Very light = REFUSED Total

11 Cuban responses for skin-tone is not significantly different from other groups: – 9 % answering ‘dark’ or ‘very dark,’ compared to 10-11% of other national origin groups. Darker skin-tone is associated with lower outcomes in income and home ownership but NOT with employment or education. Darker skin-tone also associated with more negative incidents with police, obtaining housing, and service in restaurants. A Closer Look at Skin-tone

12 Skin-tone and “ American ” Identification In general, how strongly or not do you think of yourself as American? - Very strongly, somewhat strongly, not very strongly, or not al all. The plurality answer for all respondents was “ very strongly ” but the ones most likely to feel this way were the lightest skin-tone. Not at Very All Strongly Darkest 20% 14% Neutral 16% 35% Lightest 14% 44% All Respondents 15% 39%

13 THE DECLINE OF TRANSNATIONALISM

14 Plans to Return Permanently to Country of Origin, among First Generation Latinos, by Years in US

15 Remittances to Country of Origin Once a Month or More, among First-Generation Latinos, by Years in US

16 Frequent Contact (more than once a month) with Family in Country of Origin, among First-Generation Latinos, by Years in US

17 Spanish as Primary Language of Media Use, among First-Generation Latinos, by Years in US

18 Contact with Friends and Family in Country of Origin Once a Month or More, among Latinos in the US, by Generation

19 Remittances to Country of Origin Once a Month or More, among Latinos in the US, by Generation

20 Spanish as Primary Language of Media Use, among Latinos in the US, by Generation

21 Follow Politics in Country of Origin a Lot, among Latinos in the US, by Generation

22 BEING AMERICAN

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