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Meat, Poultry, and Seafood

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1 Meat, Poultry, and Seafood
Ch. 8

2 Purchasing, Storing, and Preparing Meats, Poultry and Seafood

3 Purchasing Meat Serving meat is one of the most expensive, yet profitable areas Meat can be purchase from a whole carcass to individual cuts of meat Government inspection is mandatory U.S. Dept. of Agriculture has established grades called quality grades Quality Grade = standards given to meats based on their freshness and quality Yield Grade = refers to the amount of usable meat after the fat has been trimmed (this only applies to lamb and beef)




7 Storing Meats Sanitary procedures must be followed when storing meats
Meat should be loosely wrapped in air-permeable paper and stored under refrigeration. Never tightly wrap fresh meats in plastic wrap because this creates a perfect breading ground for bacteria and will severely limit the shelf life.

8 Butchering Meats Cattle butchered for beef is cut into 4 sections. Cattle that is butchered from age of one day up to fifteen weeks are cut into two halves and sold as veal. Hogs are slaughtered and cut into two halves. Sheep slaughtered under the age of one year are considered lamb; after that age them must be labeled mutton. Lambs are cut directly into primal cuts. Primal cuts = are primary divisions of meat produced by the initial butchering of animal carcasses.

9 Aging Meats Meat must be aged between 48 and 72 hours to allow the muscles to relax. Butchers hang the meat during aging to help lengthen the muscle fibers and increase the tenderness of the meat. Meat that is aged longer becomes more expensive because the carcass looses more water which shrink the meat.

10 Fabrication At the end of the aging period, the carcass is then cut into primal cuts Look at page 343 in your book Fabrication = is the process of cutting primal cuts into usable potions Retail cuts =cuts that are ready for sale. They can be primal cuts or fabricated portions The amount of cutting or butchering necessary to prepare a retail cut affects its price.

11 Fabrication Continued
Tying = a roast ensures even cooking and keeps the shape of the meat. Trimming = a tenderloin must be done very carefully because it is one of the most expensive cuts Silverskin = tough membrane that surrounds the meat Butterflying = cut a piece of meat lengthwise nearly in half so that it opens out and lies flat.

12 Fabrication Continued
Cuts from boneless loin or tenderloin of beef, veal, lamb, or pork can be made into a variety of menu cuts: Medallions – small, round pieces molded by wrapping them Noisettes – small, usually round portion of meat Scallops – thin, boneless cuts that are lightly pounded Emince – thin strips of meat used for sautéing

13 Other Meats Offal meats = are organ meats from hogs, cattle or sheet
Sweetbread (thymus glands), liver, kidney, tripe (muscular stomach lining), hear and brain Game meats = are form animals that are not raise domestically Deer, wild boar, moose and elk Kosher meat = meats are especially slaughtered to comply with Jewish dietary laws

14 Purchasing Poultry Poultry = include chicken, duck, goose, guinea, squab, turkey etc. Like beef, poultry also goes under mandatory inspection Quality grades are USDA A USDA B USDA C Factors that determine grade are: shape of carcass, ratio of meat to bone, amount of feathers, hair, and don and number (if any) of cuts or broken bones

15 Storing Poultry All types of fresh poultry should be wrapped loosely and stored under refrigeration between 32°F-36°F Free-range poultry = raised in large yards and given a lot of space to roam and exercise their muscles This makes meat darker in color and gives the meat a slight different taste and texture. Game birds (rising interest)

16 Poultry Fabrication Poultry fabrication includes
Disjointing and boning (separating meat from bones) – page Not all birds are fabricated some birds are left whole and trussed = which means the legs and wings are tied to the bird’s body so the entire bird cooks evenly and stays moist

17 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish
Fish and shellfish inspections are not required by the federal government, there is a voluntary program called Packed Under Federal Inspection (PUFI) After passing inspection fish is given a grade of A, B, or C grade Fish is highly perishable – they should be moist, firm, elastic flesh, clear and full eyes, gills should have a bright red color Live crabs and lobster should move about

18 Purchasing Fish and Shellfish Continued
Most shellfish are purchased live and must be checked to make sure they are fresh when received. Tightly closed shells Reject any delivery containing open shells that wont close or broken shells To help ensure safety the FDA requires that all foodservice establishments keep dated shell stock tags from shellfish for 90 days. There are two basic categories of fish: Fin Fish Flat – flounder, sole halibut Round fin fish – cod, grouper, red snapper, catfish, trout etc. Shellfish Mollusks – oysters, clams, mussels Crustaceans – lobster, shrimp, crab


20 Storing Fish and Shellfish
Fresh fish should be stored in crushed ice in a refrigerated unit – used within 3 days, preferably within one day of delivery. Fresh shellfish should be stored in a covered container in a refrigerated unit.

21 Fabricating Fish and Shellfish
Fin fish fabricated Most of the trim can be put to use in the kitchen by a soup, sauce, canapé etc. Fish fabrication techniques consist of Scaling, trimming, gutting, and filleting the fish Scaling = scales are scarped off their skin. Gutting round fish = slit is made in the fish’s bells and the guts, or insides are pulled out Gutting flat fish = cut are made around the head, as the head is pulled away from the body, the guts come with it. Filleting = separates the flesh of the fish from the bones Goujonetts – small strips Paupiettes – thin rolled files filled w/a stuffing

22 Mollusks and Crustaceans
Two classifications of shellfish Mollusks = shellfish characterized by a soft, unsegmented body, no internal skeleton and a hard out shell. Ex. clams Shucked = removed from the shell (do not destroy shell) Crustaceans = have segmented shells and jointed legs. Ex. lobsters Deveining = process of removing a shrimp’s digestive tract.

23 Questions 8.1 Match the term with the definition
Fabrication a. Small, round piece of meat molded by wrapping in cheesecloth Silverskin b. Little “nuts” of meat Agining c. Sheep slaughtered after the age of 1 Yield grade d. Working with primal cuts of meat to customize them Veal e. Cattle that are butchered from the age of 1 day to 15 weeks Mutton f. The amount of usable meat after the fat has been trimmed Primal cuts g. Gives meat a darker color and also makes it more expensive Retail cuts h. Tough membrane on meat Medallions i. Leg, loin, rib, and shoulder cuts Noisettes K. Cuts ready for sale

24 Cooking Meat, Poultry and Seafood

25 Meat Composition Muscle tissue consists of about: 75% Water
20% Protein 5% Fat Add is made up of a network of muscle fibers bound together in bundles Each of the fibers is surrounded by connective tissues, there are two types of connective tissue: Collagen – breaks down during long, slow, moist heat cooking Elastin = will not break down during cooking and needs to be trimmed The amount of connective tissue in a muscle increases as the animal ages and the more the animal is exercised. Marbling = fat that builds up between the muscle fibers


27 Flavor, Tenderness, and Moisture
Goal is make meat flavor and tender. The reduction in collagen increases the tenderness of the meat, but at the same time, the los of moisture dries it out. Moist-heat methods are generally slower and allow collagen to break down. Tender pieces of meat use quick dry-heat method. Marinade = a liquid made of oil, acid and herbs and spices. (acid in the marinade breaks down the collagen) Dry marinade/spice rub = combination of dry herbs, spices, and salt to give extra flavor. Bard = tying bacon to a roast to add fat and flavor


29 Meats best suited to dry-heat, are meat that is naturally tender.
Dry-Heat Cooking Searing = caramelize outside of meat, improving flavor and appearance of finished product Meats best suited to dry-heat, are meat that is naturally tender. Dry heat with fats = stir-frying ,pan-frying and deep-frying

30 Mirepoix = a combination of chopped aromatic vegetables (usually 2 parts onion, 1 part carrot and 1 part celery) Jus = sauce that incorporates drippings released during roasting Deglazing = swirl a liquid in a pan to dissolve cooked particles or food remaining on the bottom. (au jus) Pan gravy = is a sauce thickened with a roux incorporation the fat from a roast and adding water or stock. Carryover cooking = heat retained in cooked foods that allows continued cooking even after item I removed from the oven.

31 These are for cuts of meat that are tough.
Moist-heat Cooking These are for cuts of meat that are tough. Combination Cooking- uses both dry and moist heat cooking methods

32 Determining Doneness One of the most important steps: Beef Roasts
Rare – 130F (meat red on the inside, thin layer of brown) Medium – F (meat will be pink, well browned outside) Well-done -160F (completely cooked) Allow meat to REST, very important, juices goes back into the meat. AT LEAST 10 MINUTES Veal and Pork – cooked all the way thru Pork could contain trichinosis = a disease caused by a parasite that lives in muscle tissue – cook until internal temperature of 150F

33 Dry-Heat Cooking for Poultry
Juices need to be colorless Roasting requires a longer cooking time because this techniques is used to cook a whole bird Cooked until thermometer reaches F to kill all traces of salmonella Dressing for birds need to be made separately

34 Cooking Poultry Poultry is especially suited for dry-heat cooking with fats/oils Includes sautéing, stir-frying, pan=frying and deep-frying Steaming is a healthy way to prepare poultry because the nutrients are not washed away (Flesh of poultry should be opaque) Simmering and poaching are also excellent techniques Combination cooking includes stewing and braising, good cooking technique because nutrients goes into the sauce

35 Cooking Fish and Seafood
Most fish are baked between 350°F-400°F. Large fish need to be baked at a lower temperature so the entire fish will bake evenly Lean fish and shellfish are best when using dry-heat cooking with fats and oil Fish/Shellfish should be coated with flour or a breading before cooking in either clarified butter or oil Moist-heat cooking techniques – poaching, simmering, and steaming are excellent ways to cook fish, especially lean varieties Court bouillon = stock made of vegetables and an acid Fumet = rich fish stock made with wine, or simmered in its own juices

36 Cooking Fish and Seafood Continued
Shallow-poached fish and shellfish should be opaque. Finished item should be moist and extremely tender Cooking muscles, clams etc. make sure the shell opens during cooking otherwise throw them AWAY En papillote = moist-heat cooking techniques that is especially suited to fish (the fish herb etc are encased in parchment paper and steamed in a hot oven)

37 Cooking Fish and Seafood Continued
Bouillabaisse = French seafood stew made with assorted fish and shellfish, onions, tomatoes, white wine, olive oil, garlic, saffron and herbs Jambalaya = Creole stew from Louisiana made with rice, shellfish and vegetables Seafood Newburg = lobster, crab or shrimp in a rich sauce made from butter, cream, egg yolks, sherry and seasoning.

38 8.2 Questions Identify the cooking techniques below as A (dry-heat), B (dry-heat cooking with fat), C (moist heat), or D (combination cooking) Grilling Sautéing Stewing Poaching Braising Stir-frying Broiling Simmering Why do you marinate your meat? Large birds are often trussed because?

39 Charcuterie and Garde-manger

40 Charcuterie = “cooked flesh”, refers to specially prepared pork products include sausages, smoked hams, bacon, pates, and terrines Garde-manager = refers to a kitchen’s pantry section where these cold foods are stored and the work area where they are prepared.

41 Sausage Traditionally sausage were ground pork, forced into a casing made from the lining of animal intestines Today many other meats are very popular including game, beef, veal, poultry, fish, shellfish and even vegetables. There are three main types of sausage: Fresh sausage – made with raw ingredients ex. Kielbasa or chorizo Smoked or cooked sausage – raw meat products treated with preservatives ex. bratwurst or frankfurter Dried or hard sausage – made with cured meats, then air-dried ex Italian salami and pepperoni

42 Forcemeats Forcemeat = mixture of lean ground meat and fat that is emulsified or forced to combine in a food grinder and then pushed through a sieve to create a smooth paste. Pate = rich loaf made of meat, game, poultry, seafood, and/or vegetables, baked in a mold. Straight forcemeats = very finely ground, seasoned with herbs and spices and then cooked in earthenware mold called a terrine. Sometimes the forcemeat is wrapped in a dough and placed in a terrine mold, also different vegetables are arranged in terrines to make this appetizer.

43 Forcemeat Continued Mousseline = forcemeat made of veal, poultry or fish. Can be shaped into dumpling-shaped ovals and poached in a rich stock or court bouillon to make quenelles Galantine = are traditionally made of chicken forcemeat, but is now ,and with a number of different meats. Forcemeat is rolled into a round loaf inside the chicken skin, then poached for up to an hour and a half.

44 8.3 Questions Mousseline a. Ground meat forced into a casing made of animal intestines Quenelle b. Forcemeat made of veal, poultry or fish Terrine c. Small dumpling shaped ovals poached in a rich stock Galantine d. Mixture of lean ground meat and fat forced through a sieve Sausage e. Chicken forcemeat rolled in chicken skin and poached Fresh sausage f. Forcemeat rolled in pate dough and baked in an earthenware mold Smoked sausage g. Crust surrounding a baking forcemeat Dried or hard sausage h. Sausage made with fresh ingredients that have not been cured or smoked Forcemeat i. Sausage made with raw meat products treated with preservatives Pate dough j. Sausage made with cured meats, then air dried under sanitary conditions

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