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Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.,

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Presentation on theme: "Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN 0-13-148965-8. © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Chapter 28 Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices

2 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Parts Made by Chapter 28 Processes (a)(b)(c) Figure 28.1 (a) A completed eight-inch wafer with completed dice. (b) A single chip in a ball-grid array (BGA) with cover removed. (c) A printed circuit board. Source: Courtesy of Intel Corporation.

3 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Fabrication of Integrated Circuits Figure 28.2 Outline of the general fabrication sequence for integrated circuits.

4 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Fabrication of MOS Transistor Figure 28.3 Cross-sectional views of the fabrication of a MOS transistor. Source: After R. C. Jaeger.

5 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Allowable Particle Size Counts for Clean Rooms Figure 28.4 Allowable particle size counts for different clean room classes.

6 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Crystallographic Structure and Miller Indices for Silicon Figure 28.5 Crystallographic structure and Miller indices for silicon. (a) Construction of a diamond-type lattice from interpenetrating face-centered cubic-cells; one of eight penetrating cells is shown. (b) Diamond-type lattice of silicon; the interior atoms have been shaded darker than the surface atoms. (c) Miller indices for a cubic lattice.

7 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Finishing Operations on a Silicon Ingot to Produce Wafers Figure 28.6 Finishing operations on a silicon ingot to produce wafers (a) sawing the ends off the ingot; (b) grinding of the end and cylindrical surfaces of a silicon ingot; (c) machining of a notch or flat; (d) slicing of wafers; (e) end grinding of wafers; (f) chemical- mechanical polishing of wafers.

8 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. CVD Diagrams Figure 28.7 Schematic diagrams of (a) a continuous, atmospheric-pressure CVD reactor and (b) a low-pressure CVD. Source: After S. M. Sze.

9 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Silicon Dioxide Growth Figure 28.8 Growth of silicon dioxide showing consumption of silicon. Source: After S. M. Sze.

10 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. General Characteristics of Lithography Techniques Figure 28.9 Comparison of lithography techniques.

11 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Spinning of Organic Coating on Wafer Figure Spinning of an organic coating on a wafer.

12 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Techniques of Pattern Transfer Figure Schematic illustration of (a) wafer stepper technique to pattern transfer and (b) step-and-scan technique.

13 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Pattern Transfer by Photolithography Figure Pattern transfer by photolithography. Note that the mask in Step 3 can be a positive or negative image of the pattern.

14 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. SCALPEL Process Figure Schematic illustration of the SCALPEL process.

15 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Moore’s Law Figure Illustration of Moore’s law. Source: After M. Madou.

16 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. General Characteristics of Silicon Etching Operations

17 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Comparison of Etch Rates

18 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Etching Directionality Figure Etching directionality. (a) Isotropic etching: etch proceeds vertically and horizontally at approximately the same rate, with significant mask undercut. (b) Orientation-dependant etching (ODE): etch proceeds vertically, terminating on {111} crystal planes with little mask undercut. (c) Vertical etching: etch proceed vertically with little mask undercut. Source: Courtesy of K. R. Williams, Agilent Laboratories.

19 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Etch Rates of Silicon Figure Etch rates of silicon in different crystallographic orientations using ethylene-diamine/pyrocatechol-in-water as the solution. Source: After Seidel, H. et al., Journal Electrochemical Society, 1990, pp

20 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Application of Boron Etch Stop and Back Etching to Form Membrane and Orifice Figure Application of a boron etch stop and back etching to form a membrane and orifice. Source: After Brodie, I., and Murray, J.J., The Physics of Microfabrication, Plenum Press, 1982.

21 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Machining Profiles Associated with Dry-Etching Figure Machining profiles associated with different dry-etching techniques: (a) sputtering; (b) chemical; (c) ion-enhanced energetic; (d) ion-enhanced inhibitor. Source: After M Madou.

22 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Etching Figure (a) Schematic illustration of reactive plasma etching. (b) Examples of deep reactive-ion etched trench. Note the periodic undercuts or scallops. (c) Near-vertical sidewalls produced through DRIE with an anisotropic-etching process. (d) An examples of cryogenic dry etching showing a 145-μm deep structure etched into silison using a 2.0- μm thick oxide masking layer. The substrate temperature was -140°C during etching. Source: (a) After M. Madou. (d) After R. Kassing and I.W. Rangelow, University of Kassel, Germany.

23 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Holes Generated from Square Mask Figure Various holes generated from a square mask in: (a) isotropic (wet) etching; (b) orientation-dependant etching (ODE); (c) ODE with a larger hole; (d) ODE with a rectangular hole; (e) deep reactive-ion etching; and (f) vertical etching. Source: After M. Madou.

24 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Ion Implantation Apparatus Figure Schematic illustration for an apparatus for ion implantation.

25 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. PN-Junction Diode Fabrication Figure Fabrication sequence for a pn-diode.

26 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Interconnection of Integrated Circuit Hierarchy Figure Connections between elements in the hierarchy for integrated circuits.

27 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Two-Level Metal Interconnect Structures Figure (a) Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photograph of a two-level metal interconnect. Note the varying surface topography. (b) Schematic illustration of a two- level metal interconnect structure. Source: (a) Courtesy of National Semiconductor Corporation. (b) After R. C. Jaeger.

28 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Wire Bonds Connecting Package Leads to Die Bonding Pads Figure (a) SEM photograph of wire bonds connecting package leads (left-hand side) to die bonding pads. (b) and (c) Detailed views of (a). Source: Courtesy of Micron Technology, Inc. (a)(b)(c)

29 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Thermosonic Welding of Gold Wires Figure Schematic illustration of thermosonic welding of gold wires from package leads to bonding pads.

30 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. IC Packages Figure Schematic illustration of various IC packages: (a) dual-in-line package (DIP); (b) flat, ceramic package; (c) common surface-mount configurations; (d) ball-grid arrays.

31 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Flip-Chip Technology Figure Illustration of flip-chip technology. Flip-chip package with (a) solder-plated metal balls and pads on the printed circuit board; (b) flux application and placement; (c) reflow soldering; (d) encapsulation.

32 Manufacturing, Engineering & Technology, Fifth Edition, by Serope Kalpakjian and Steven R. Schmid. ISBN © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. Circuit Board Structures and Features Figure Printed circuit board structures and design features.


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