Presentation on theme: "Ultrasound Michael Baram. Objectives Basic science Terminology Examples –Movies What we should and should not be doing."— Presentation transcript:
Ultrasound Michael Baram
Objectives Basic science Terminology Examples –Movies What we should and should not be doing
Disclosures Becoming more of a techy. I have lost my touch for subclavians I tried to trade my kids in for a machine (It did not work)
Anatomy of a wave Velocity = wavelength x frequency High frequency wave travel more linear and reflected easier
Velocity through material Velocity of a wave is a constant through a given substance (at a constant temperature) Assumption made all velocity about 1540 m/s MediumSpeed (m/s) Blood 1566 Brain Fat1446 Kidney1567 Liver1556 Muscle Bone Water 1480 Air333 Brass4430
How waves are made
US- the perfect child
Reflection of Beam Partial reflection of a sound beam occurs at a tissue interface.
Breast Mass or Cyst?
Different Waves have different degrees of attenuation
Low vs High Frequency 4 MHz 7 MHz
Reasons for attenuation
Shadowing The lateral edge shadow is a thin acoustic shadow that appears behind edges of cystic structures.
Shadowing artifact is similar to reverberation
Terminology Image Interpretation: Anechoic / Echolucent - Complete absence of returning sound waves, area is black. Hypoechoic - Structure has very few echoes and appears darker than surrounding tissue. Hyperechoic / Echogenic - Opposite of hypoechoic, structure appears brighter than surrounding tissue.
Terminology Image Acquisition / Probe Positions: Transverse Plane - Also known as an axial plane or cross section, separates the superior from the inferior, or, the head from the feet. Sagittal Plane - Oriented perpendicular to the ground, separating left from right. The "midsagittal plane" is a sagittal plane that is exactly in the middle of the body. Coronal Plane - Also known as the frontal plane, separates the anterior from the posterior or the front from the back. Oblique Plane - The probe is oriented neither parallel to, nor at right angles from, coronal, sagittal or transverse planes. Longitudinal Plane - The longitudinal plane is perpendicular to the transverse plane an can be either the coronal plane or sagittal plane.