Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Introducing the !Kung San Dobe Ju/’hoansi People of Dobe Language Environmental Adaptations Settlement.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Introducing the !Kung San Dobe Ju/’hoansi People of Dobe Language Environmental Adaptations Settlement."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introducing the !Kung San Dobe Ju/’hoansi People of Dobe Language Environmental Adaptations Settlement

2 Ethnography by Richard Lee 1963 as part of his dissertation research 1963 as part of his dissertation research Learn about foragers as most “basic” of humans. Learn about foragers as most “basic” of humans. Common “core” of features. Common “core” of features. Learn customs and culture in evolutionary context. Learn customs and culture in evolutionary context. Also address questions of ethnoarchaeology. Also address questions of ethnoarchaeology.

3 Dobe Area

4 People of Dobe Hottentots (Khoi) Hottentots (Khoi) Herders of goats and cattle Herders of goats and cattle San “Bushmen” San “Bushmen” Term bushmen racist and sexist Term bushmen racist and sexist Dutch-16 th century Dutch-16 th century European settlemen European settlemen Genocidal warfare against San Genocidal warfare against San Remaining pushed to marginal zones of the Kalahari desert. Remaining pushed to marginal zones of the Kalahari desert. ~ 112,000 San today ~ 112,000 San today

5 People of Dobe “Yellow” San “Yellow” San Indigenous of South Africa Indigenous of South Africa Click Language Click Language Hunter-gatherers, farmers, herders and wage labor. Hunter-gatherers, farmers, herders and wage labor. Short, lighter skin, deep chested, delicate facial features. Short, lighter skin, deep chested, delicate facial features. “Black” San “Black” San Genetically similar to Bantu Mixed herding, farming, wage labor and some foraging. Taller, darker skin, stronger facial features.

6 Studies of San Lawrence and Lorna Marshall Lawrence and Lorna Marshall Nyae Nyae 1951 Nyae Nyae 1951 Silberbauer, Tanaka, Cashdan, Kent Silberbauer, Tanaka, Cashdan, Kent /Gwi /Gwi Bleek, Guenther, Barnard Bleek, Guenther, Barnard Nharo Nharo Lee, Devore (Kalahari Research Group) Lee, Devore (Kalahari Research Group) Ju/’hoansi Ju/’hoansi

7 Prehistory of San People living in that area of South Africa as early as 50 thousand years ago (and probably earlier). People living in that area of South Africa as early as 50 thousand years ago (and probably earlier). Debate: San are actually pastoralists who fled Bantu overlords and became foragers. Debate: San are actually pastoralists who fled Bantu overlords and became foragers. Archaeological evidence suggests continuity between present day San and prehistoric people. Archaeological evidence suggests continuity between present day San and prehistoric people. No historic documentation of this. No historic documentation of this.

8 San Language Unusual sounds called clicks. Unusual sounds called clicks. / = dental click (as in “tsk, tsk”) / = dental click (as in “tsk, tsk”) ≠ = alveolar click (tongue on sides of teeth) ≠ = alveolar click (tongue on sides of teeth) ! = alveopalatal click (tongue on roof of mouth) ! = alveopalatal click (tongue on roof of mouth) // = lateral click (as in urging on a horse) // = lateral click (as in urging on a horse) /online_extra.html /online_extra.html

9 Kinship Definition-a culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or marriage. Definition-a culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or marriage. Consanguineal Kin-those people related by blood (blood relations). Consanguineal Kin-those people related by blood (blood relations). related to concept of parentage. related to concept of parentage. blood is not such a great term but it gets the idea across. blood is not such a great term but it gets the idea across. Affinal-related by marriage. Affinal-related by marriage.

10 Kinship Diagram for !Kung

11

12 Environmental Adaptations Dobe area Dobe area 3000 square miles 3000 square miles Kalahari Desert Kalahari Desert meters above sea level meters above sea level Aha Hills Aha Hills 2100 meters above sea level 2100 meters above sea level

13 Habitats Ju define 4 habitats: Ju define 4 habitats: Dunes Dunes Fixed by Mongongo tree vegetation. Fixed by Mongongo tree vegetation. Flats Flats Plains between dunes and melapo Plains between dunes and melapo Melapo Melapo Dry river beds, smaller, acacia trees. Dry river beds, smaller, acacia trees. Hardpan Hardpan Bare rock/sand, baobab tree. Bare rock/sand, baobab tree.

14 Habitat Zones

15 Water Permanent waterholes (Dobe) Permanent waterholes (Dobe) Seasonal (6 months a year-October to March) Seasonal (6 months a year-October to March) Interior of Mongongo tree Interior of Mongongo tree Water bearing roots Water bearing roots

16 Climate Hottest-October to February ( F) Hottest-October to February ( F) Coolest-June and July (75-80 F) Coolest-June and July (75-80 F) San Recognize Five seasons San Recognize Five seasons !Huma (Spring Rains) Oct-Nov !Huma (Spring Rains) Oct-Nov Bara (Summer Rains) Dec-March Bara (Summer Rains) Dec-March Tobe (Autumn) April-May Tobe (Autumn) April-May !Gum (Winter) May-August !Gum (Winter) May-August !Gaa (Spring Dry) Aug-October !Gaa (Spring Dry) Aug-October

17 Rainfall Highly Variable Highly Variable ” ” ” ” ” ” Droughts Droughts 2 years out of every five 2 years out of every five Severe-One year out of every four Severe-One year out of every four

18 Fauna 50 Mammal Species 50 Mammal Species Kudu, Wildebeest, Gemsbok, Eland, Roan Antelope, Giraffe and Hartebeest most important. Kudu, Wildebeest, Gemsbok, Eland, Roan Antelope, Giraffe and Hartebeest most important. 90 Bird Species 90 Bird Species Ostrich (eggs), guinea fowl, sandgrouse, quail, dove, ducks most important Ostrich (eggs), guinea fowl, sandgrouse, quail, dove, ducks most important 25 Reptile/Amphibian Species 25 Reptile/Amphibian Species Insects Insects Chysomelid Beetle-poison for arrows Chysomelid Beetle-poison for arrows Honey Honey

19 Hunting Meat contributes 30 percent of the calories. Meat contributes 30 percent of the calories. Social-distribution and feasting when a large animal is killed. Social-distribution and feasting when a large animal is killed. Tools Tools Bow and arrow, spear, knife, springhare hook, and rope snares. Bow and arrow, spear, knife, springhare hook, and rope snares. Techniques Techniques Mobile-poisoned arrows, with dogs, underground after burrowing animals, snaring. Mobile-poisoned arrows, with dogs, underground after burrowing animals, snaring.

20 Hunting Tools

21 Flora Mongogo (nuts) Mongogo (nuts) Baobab Baobab Marula (nuts) Marula (nuts) Edible gum (sap) Edible gum (sap) Roots and Bulbs Roots and Bulbs Melons (Saba “Bitter”) Melons (Saba “Bitter”) Bean Bean

22 Melons

23 Gathering Tools

24 Settlement-Villages Dry Season Villages Dry Season Villages May-Oct, 8-15 huts, people May-Oct, 8-15 huts, people Near Permanent Water Near Permanent Water Well constructed huts Well constructed huts Circular design Circular design Rainy Season Villages Rainy Season Villages Oct-March, 3-20 huts, 3 weeks to 3 months Oct-March, 3-20 huts, 3 weeks to 3 months Hastily constructed huts, thickly thatched. Hastily constructed huts, thickly thatched. Up to 6 sites in one rainy season Up to 6 sites in one rainy season Circular design Circular design

25 Village Layout Good, shade trees Good, shade trees 0-Plaza 0-Plaza 1-Huts & Fires 1-Huts & Fires 2-Ash dumps 2-Ash dumps 3-Cooking & Butchering 3-Cooking & Butchering 4-Empty 4-Empty 5-Defecation Zone 5-Defecation Zone

26 Settlement-Camps Spring and Fall Camps Spring and Fall Camps No huts, 2-3 weeks No huts, 2-3 weeks Overnight Stops Overnight Stops Fire built Fire built Cattle Post Camps Cattle Post Camps Solid huts near cattle/goat herder villages Solid huts near cattle/goat herder villages 1-20 huts 1-20 huts Crescent shaped pattern Crescent shaped pattern


Download ppt "Introducing the !Kung San Dobe Ju/’hoansi People of Dobe Language Environmental Adaptations Settlement."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google