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©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 14 Nitrogen,Sulfur, Phosphorus, and Other Nutrients Dodds & Whiles
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.1 Streamers composed of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterium Thermothrix at Mammoth Terrace, Yellowstone National Park (courtesy of R. W. Castenholz) and a transmission electron micrograph of a heterocyst (the site of nitrogen fixation in Nostoc and other cyanobacteria) attached to a smaller dividing vegetative cell with a diameter of approximately 8 μm. (Micrograph courtesy of N. J. Lang).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.2 Nitrogen assimilation. This figure illustrates that nitrogen must be assimilated in the form of ammonium, and energy requirements for assimilation are N 2. NO 3 2. NO 2 2. NH 4 1.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.3 A diagram of cyanobacterial vegetative cells, a heterocyst, adaptations to protect nitrogenase from deactivation by O 2, and mode of N transport from the heterocyst into vegetative cells.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.4 Distribution of nitrate (A) and ammonium (B) in hypereutrophic Wintergreen Lake, Michigan, as a function of depth and time. Ice cover occurred from January to March. Darker colors represent higher concentrations. Contours are reported in μg liter 21. (Reproduced with permission from Wetzel, 1983).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.5 Concentrations of nitrate in groundwater flowing from undisturbed prairie (top, solid line), nitrate in Kings Creek, Kansas (middle, a stream influenced by groundwater that passes under cropland), and discharge in the same stream (bottom). High nitrate is related to input of groundwater from below fertilized cropland that dominates flow during periods of low discharge, and these concentrations are substantially greater than found in pristine groundwater. (Data courtesy of Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research site).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.6 A conceptual diagram of the nitrogen cycle.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.7 Correlation between nitrate intake and rates of gastrointestinal cancer. (After P. E. Hartman. 1983. Reprinted by permission of Wiley–Liss, Inc., a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.8 A conceptual diagram of the sulfur cycle. A 5 assimilation.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.9 A diagram of the phosphorus cycle.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.10 Concentration of silica as a function of depth and time in hypereutrophic Wintergreen Lake, Michigan (A), and oligotrophic Lawrence Lake, Michigan (B). Concentrations are given in mg liter 21, with darker contour fills corresponding to greater concentrations. (Reproduced with permission from Wetzel, 1983).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.11 The relationship between epilimnetic silicon and biomass of the diatom, Asterionella, in Lake Windermere, England. Note how decreases in dissolved silica correspond with high densities of diatoms. (Data from Lund, 1964).
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.12 A conceptual diagram of the iron cycle.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. FIGURE 14.13 Relationship among redox gradients, dissolved oxygen, nutrient concentrations, and functional groups of microorganisms responsible for biogeochemical fluxes. This figure illustrates the steep gradients that occur at oxic/anoxic interfaces, and how such interfaces are a hot spot for biogeochemical activities.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 12 Aquatic Chemistry and Factors Controlling Nutrient Cycling Dodds & Whiles.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 18 Trophic State and Eutrophication Dodds & Whiles.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 24 Freshwater Ecosystems Dodds & Whiles.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 17 Nutrient Use and Remineralization Dodds & Whiles.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 19 Behavior and Interactions among Microorganisms Dodds & Whiles.
Figure 4.4 The Nitrogen Cycle. While N 2 is the ultimate source and sink of biospheric nitrogen, several oxidized and reduced forms occur in the environment.
Figure 4-1. Diagram of a Zn-Cu electrochemical cell. Zn and Cu metal electrodes are immersed in a CuSO 4 solution. Electrons flow from left to right and.
Nitrogen in Lakes and Streams Wetzel Chapter 12 pp Joe Conroy 12 April 2004.
Cole et al Science 265: Why this pattern?
Chapter 22 Lecture Outline Microbes and the Global Environment.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 3 Movement of Light, Heat, and Chemicals in Water Dodds & Whiles.
Lecture Goals To discuss why nitrogen and phosphorus are important nutrients in freshwater systems. To trace how nitrogen and phosphorus move through freshwater.
Week 4 Lectures November 2001 Microbial Ecology and Geochemical Cycles.
The Nitrogen Cycle Sources of Nitrogen N is abundant on earth, but only about 2% is available to organisms as reactive nitrogen (NO x, NH x, Org N) N is.
The Cycling of Nitrogen N is an important nutrient that frequently limits primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems It is rare in the earth’s crust, but.
Nutrient Cycles Eutrophication Nitrogen –Chemical Forms in the Aquatic Environment –Chemical Transformations –Cycle f-ratio Carbon.
Chapter 5 Element Cycling © 2013 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. From Fundamentals of Ecosystem Science, Weathers, Strayer, and Likens (eds).
Water Chemistry By Lucas Kirby, Cynthia Watson, Meghan Dye and Stephanie Johnson.
Results A B C A. Year to year variation in water regimes result in changes in plant zones which affect the distribution of dissolved oxygen. The marsh’s.
Biogeochemical Cycles. essential elements describe the flow of essential elements from the environment through living organisms and back into the environment.
Microbial ecology The study of the interactions of microorganisms with each other and their nonliving physical environment Environmental microbiology relates.
Botkin & Keller Environmental Science 5e Chapter 5 The Biogeochemical Cycles.
Weathering Weathering – is the process by which rock materials are broken down by the action of physical or chemical processes. Mechanical Weathering.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Appendix 2 Dodds & Whiles. ©2010 Elsevier, Inc. APP 2 FIGURE - 1 Percentage light transmission as a function of wavelength for (A)
The Biogeochemical Cycles © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers Fig 4.5 Periodic table of the elements.
Cycling of Matter & Pyramid Models Chapter Sections 13.5 and 13.6.
The Ocean as a Microbial Habitat Matthew Church Marine Microplankton Ecology OCN 626/Fall 2008.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 7 Lakes and Reservoirs: Physiography Dodds & Whiles.
Nitrogen and Phosphorus. Nitrogen WHAT is it? Element # 7 in the Periodic Table A colorless gas that makes up 78% of our atmosphere, where it exists as.
Why are microbes important? Ecological Importance of Microbes (Applied and Environmental Microbiology Chapter 25)
Nitrogen Cycles. All life requires nitrogen compounds to form proteins and nucleic acids. Air is major reservoir of nitrogen (~ 78%). Even though air.
©2010 Elsevier, Inc. Chapter 6 Physiography of Flowing Water Dodds & Whiles.
Mineral Nutrient Absorption and Assimilation HORT 301 – Plant Physiology October 12, 2007 Taiz and Zeiger, Chapter 6 (p ) and Chapter 12
BIG IDEA: WHAT HAPPENS TO ENERGY STORED IN BODY TISSUES WHEN ONE ORGANISM EATS ANOTHER? Energy Flow In Ecosystems.
Principles of Ecology Biology. What is Ecology? –What is the lowest level of organization that most ecologists study? –What name is given to several organisms.
Chapter 3: The Biosphere. Warm Up 1. On average, what percentage of the energy in an ecosystem is transferred from one trophic level to the next? 2. Where.
Ecosystems and their Components Chapter 3. Ecosystem Components The Earth is divided into four components that all interact together. atmosphere (air)
The Nitrogen Cycle. Why is nitrogen important? Its an essential part of many biological molecules. Proteins Nucleic acids (DNA) Chlorophyll Adenosine.
Light, Secchi, Weather and Miscellaneous Comments Liz Ely, Ira Smith, and Margaret Soulman.
The Nitrogen Cycle The basics….. Essential Question: How does the addition of fertilizer impact the both soil and water quality? Warmup- Porosity and.
CHAPTER 10 DATA COLLECTION METHODS. FROM CHAPTER 10 Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sekaran/RESEARCH 4E.
1 What is in Our Water?. Background slides for the whole unit The water cycle Nutrients Eutrophication.
Energy Flow in Ecosystems and Biogeochemical Cycles.
Chapter 4 Ecosystems: What Are They and How Do They Work?
1. Review- By what two processes is water cycled from land to the atmosphere Sequence- Describe one way in which water from Lake Superior may make one.
Lesson Overview Lesson Overview Cycles of Matter Lesson Overview 3.4 Cycles of Matter.
THE NITROGEN CYCLE IN SURFACE WATERS. PHYTOPLANKTON ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION O53% C27% K6.2% H5.5% N4.6% Ca1.0% S0.7% Na0.7% P0.5% Fe0.4% Mg0.4% Zn0.3% Cu0.02%
AP Biology Ecosystems Ecology Part 2. I. Biogeochemical Cycles (“Bio” means “life”; “geo” means “earth”) These refer to the cycling of matter. A. Water.
The Nitrogen Cycle. Nitrogen Cycle 1. Our atmosphere contains about 20% oxygen, _____% nitrogen, and 1% other gases. 78.
OMSAP Public Meeting September 1999 The Utility of the Bays Eutrophication Model in the Harbor Outfall Monitoring Program James Fitzpatrick HydroQual,
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