Albrecht Durer 1471-1528 1515 British Museum, London
Hatching The most basic method of creating value in ink drawing is linear hatching. Fine parallel lines fill an area, so that from just a slight distance, we have the illusion of value. The closer the lines are, the less white paper shows, and the darker the value appears. Heavier line weight (pressing more firmly or using a bigger nib) also gives a darker appearance.
Scumbling and Random Hatching Scumbling, often called the 'brillo pad' technique, uses layers of small calligraphic, scribbled marks to build up value and texture. Varying the direction and shape adds more interest than a simple circular scribble. Random hatching uses layers of short, straight marks. Various textures result depending on whether these short hatches are applied vertically, at right angles, following a contour or at random angles.
Contour Hatching This technique is often used in figure drawing, with the direction of line helping to suggest the cross-contours of the body. Hatching which follows a contour can also help to make objects appear more three- dimensional.
Stipple is a drawing method employing dots rather than long lines. Stippling uses tiny dots to create value. The closer together the dots, the darker the tone. Larger dots create a denser tonal value more quickly, but can look coarse.drawingdotslines
Cross Hatching Crosshatching uses layers of hatching placed at an angle. Usually, the first layer would be vertical, the next horizontal, the next at forty-five degrees, and so on. This methodical approach can look a little mechanical, so artists often use variation in direction to add interest.
Portrait Drawing using pen and ink as it’s medium.
Value is the degree of light and dark in a design.
Subjects in Art The Figure- From ancient Greece until today, the figure has been one of the most important subjects in art—in painting, drawing, and sculpture. Portraits-If a work of art depicts the personal characteristics of a particular individual or group of individuals, it is a portrait. Self-Portraits-The artist Albrecht Durer was the first to paint a self portrait. Rembrandt painting 29 self-portraits—one almost every year of his adult life. Still Life-A painting or drawing of objects of things that cannot move is called a still life. Landscapes-A work of art which shows the features of the natural environment. Hudson River school artists Thomas Cole and Thomas Moran’s paintings of the western U.S. probably influenced Congress to establish the National Parks System. Cityscapes-Views of City Street, plazas, courtyards, buildings, and activities in an urban environment. Animals-Animals of all kinds have been portrayed by artists in many cultures, both in realistic and abstract styles. Genre Subjects-are representations of subjects and/or scenes from everyday life usually painted realistically. The word “genre” refers to the common or ordinary. Narrative-this is art that tells a story. It usually depicts a realistically painted event with interaction and activity.
Religious Subjects-Many artworks depict religious figures as subjects. Historical subjects-An artist may choose an historical subject to tell about or record people or events from history. Literary Subjects-Subjects taken from writing such as sources from the Bible, or from famous tales, myths and legends. Social Comment-artists also create works of art to visually express their opinions about political or social issues relevant to their lives. Abstraction-it is the simplification of subject matter into basic and often geometric shapes. Abstract works are not realistic. Subject matter may be recognized, or it may become so simplified that it looses its identity and the design and arrangement of shapes become the subject matter. Non-Objective -works that are composed of colors, lines and shapes that are fully abstract, or not representational of anything. The actual subject matter, rather than trees, flowers, or people, might be color or the composition of the work itself. Expressionistic -a work that communicates to the viewer an artist’s personal or emotional feelings about a subject.