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Inequalities. Introduction Marek Nowak PhD Institute of Sociology AMU Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach.

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Presentation on theme: "Inequalities. Introduction Marek Nowak PhD Institute of Sociology AMU Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inequalities. Introduction Marek Nowak PhD Institute of Sociology AMU Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego Projekt finasowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego

2 2 Differences contra inequalities Differences: observable dissimilarities between people which do not implicate consequences of lower or higher position in society (white hair or black hair, pedestrian contra riding bike etc.).

3 3 Differences are aspects of a social structure (underclass, middle class, lower middle class, higher middle class etc.). They inform just about the different positions peoples have because of their level of income. 1)An abundance of social roles focus on norms and values (being a student, teacher, wife, mother, friend, school friend etc.). 2)The division of labor (driver, diver, baker, worker, businessman, and so on).

4 4 The social stratification The appraisal of the social position of the individual (subjective or objective) because of particular criteria (for example higher or lower level of disposable income etc). Stratification is the a word used in architecture or geology.

5 5 Inequalities: those differences which have resulted in the valuation of social position (higher or lower, better or worse). We discuss inequalities when individuals differ in their level of expectation regarding his/her needs (in the sense of the level of, and the quality of consumption). In Marxian sense: in relation to the location of the employee in the organization of production or service (worker contra burgeois).

6 6 Examples

7 7 The level of Gini coef. in 2012 (Eurostat) Legend Cases 22.9 - 24.44 yellow; 24.4 - 26.35 darker yellow; 26.3 - 27.43 green; 27.4 - 31.94 darker green; 31.9 - 35.25 the most dark green; Violet: data not available Minimum value:22.9 Maximum value:35.2 Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has an exactly equal income). A Gini coefficient of one (100 on the percentile scale) expresses maximal inequality among values (for example where only one person has all the income).

8 8 The same on the Globe Gini coefficient of national income distribution around the world. This is based on 1989 to 2009 data, estimated by CIA. Some are pre-tax, others post-tax income.

9 9 The most common concepts of the differentiations/inequalities 1)(class) Karol Marx: the relation of the one to the means of production (who are the owner of, or manager of the MoP (means of production), and who are not); The problems with Marx’s concept relate to the question of the middle sectors of the labor and society. Marks suggested that it would disappear (become polarised) in the process of the growth of capitalist relations. It h a s n ‘ t h a p p e n e d.

10 10 The question was how to analyse (count) the middle sectors of the society (middle- class)? The solution we could find in the class concept of Weber (EGP schema), the theory of stratification, and the neo Marxian context.

11 11 2) (class) Max Weber: class position is defined by the position of the individual in the capitalist market (how worthy are your skills and abilities on the market of skills and abilities); 3) (status groups) Concept of stratification (Kingsley Davies and Wilbert Moore, Ralph Dahrendorf).

12 12 The present days concepts of a class Class traditionally is not based on biological differentiations. Contemporary discussion = there are many examples of ethnic or gender differentiation which result in one’s socio- economic position. As a result now the concept of class is more quantitative and broader…

13 13 Examples

14 14 The Gender Pay Gap in 2012 (by Eurostat) Legend 4.4 - 8.65 yellow; 8.6 - 14.65 darker yellow; 14.6 - 16.15 green; 16.1 - 19.15 darker green 19.1 - 25.57 the most dark green Violet data not available Minimum value:4.4 Maximum value:25.5 European Commission defines it as the average difference between men’s and women’s hourly earnings.

15 15 The same on the Globe Ratio of female to male salaries according to the Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report (2007 data). Each color represents 5% of the average male pay.Save the Children State of the World's Mothers report

16 16 Materially based relations = class = inequalities

17 17 What we can find in the official statistics?

18 18 Data of the Central Statistical Office in Poland 2010

19 19 That is not enough!

20 20

21 21 The EGP scheme „The EGP classes are based on the [1] work situation (authority and autonomy at work) as well as [2] market situation (including income, degree of income security, career prospects and source of income) of the respondents. Additional criteria used are distinctions between [3] owners, employers and employees; between firms with more or less than 10 employees; and between manual and non-manual occupations” (Social class in Europe, European Social Survey 2002/3).

22 22

23 23 Neomarxian perspective

24 24 What does class mean for Eric Olin Wright (EOR)? „... positions withi the social relations of production derived from the property relations which determine the patterns of exploitation” (p. 72).

25 25 Inequalities by Eric Olin Wright (EOR) „… general ambiguity of the term of „class” in the popular imagination. To some people it connotes [1] lifestyle and tastes, the wearing of tennis whites while gardening [cultural inequalities]. To others [2] it is mainly about social status, esteem and respect: to be reclassified „down” the class hierarchy is demeaning [social inequalities].

26 26 … [3] Some see classes as social categories engaged in collective forms of conflict, shaping the destiny of society [coercive or conflictual inequalities]”. [4] Politicians for „middle-class tax cats” by which they simply mean „tax cuts for the middle range of income distribution [representation inequalities]. And […] [5] as identifying the basic determinants of a person’s economic prospects” [inequalities as a faith] (Approach to Class Ananlysis, ed. by EOR, 2005, 19)”

27 27 The problem: The problem of class now seems to be difficult because of (a) unfitted traditional criteria for defining a class and (b) because it is tied to social deliberation (to the discussion of culture, to the social relations as a kind of communication relations, to the coercive relations of the ownership of means of production, and to a (c) diversity of skills and prospects on the labor market).

28 28 The basic context of EOR relates to the Marxian category of e x p l o i t a t i o n As EOR said: „…it is possible to restor the central trust of the traditional Marxian concept of exploitation by making a distinction between what can be called ‘economic oppression' and 'exploitation' (EOR, Classes 1985, 74)”

29 29 „Exploitation […], implies more than just economic oppression [inequalities as was defined]; it includes both economic oppression and the appropriation [kind of monopoly in ] of the fruits of the labour of one class by another (which is equvalent to a transfer of the surplus from one class to another)”.

30 30

31 31 The picture of the social structure by E.O. Wright

32 32 The two empirical perspectives by EOW

33 33 Why we use this typology (the advantages)

34 34 Than...

35 35...

36 36 EGP contra EOR (an example)

37 37 The Espring Andersen (EA) concept „EA’s alternative is to create a typology where, in his perspective, relevant distinctions between managers and experts/semi professionals do not get lost. He also opposes the idea of merging skilled workers in manufacturing with skilled workers in essentially service relations”.

38 38 Industrial contra post-industrial I n d u s t r i a l : the system built by the mass production and organisation (centralized, etatist etc.); P o s t – i n d u s t r i a l : the system built by the consumer related production (nish marketing strategy). Groving importance of the service sector.

39 39 Industrial and post-industrial class scheme EA

40 40 What it look like (based on ESS)?

41 41 … and so on

42 42

43 43

44 44 For Poland and others...

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