Presentation on theme: "The Second of the Big Four Nucleic Acids. These are macromolecules are made up of nucleotides – Polymer - nucleic acid – Monomer - nucleotide Contain."— Presentation transcript:
The Second of the Big Four Nucleic Acids
These are macromolecules are made up of nucleotides – Polymer - nucleic acid – Monomer - nucleotide Contain H, O, C, N and P Consist of three parts: a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base. Covalent bonds connect nucleotides together to form nucleic acid. Store and transmit hereditary information
Nucleic Acids There are two types of nucleic acids – DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid, deoxyribose is the five carbon sugar) – RNA (Ribonucleic acid, ribose is the five carbon sugar) There are three kinds of RNA – mRNA (messenger RNA) – tRNA (transfer RNA) – rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
DNA James Watson and Francis Crick discovered that DNA had a double helix shape in 1953 Contains the genetic code for producing proteins. Each DNA triplet codes for one amino acid The “coding” side is complimentary to the “complimentary” side
DNA The nucleotides of DNA are made up of and
DNA 3. Nitrogen Bases -Adenine and Guanine are purines -Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidines -Adenine can only bond with Thymine -Guanine can only bond with Cytosine
DNA DNA is made of two long chains of nucleotides joined by hydrogen bonds The end with the phosphate exposed is the 5’ end. The other end is the 3’ end. DNA Structure
The Double Helix
DNA DNA is almost always wrapped around proteins called histones. The histones are the proteins that we cut with the enzyme in our DNA extraction lab. chromatin This …. …. not this is what’s found in the cell.
Review of Wednesday Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of _______. Nucleic acids are made up of _______, ______, and ______. There are two types of nucleic acids, _____ and _____. The sugar in DNA is called _______. There are three types of RNA, _____, _____ and _____. The structure of DNA is called _____. The structure of DNA was discovered by ______ and ____ in the year ______. Each _______________ codes for one amino acid. Adenine and Guanine are _________. Cytosine and Thymine are _________. Cytosine only bonds with _________. Thymine only bonds with _________. The end of the DNA with the phosphate group exposed is called _______. _________ are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus.
Review of Wednesday Nucleic acids are macromolecules that are made up of nucleotides. Nucleic acids are made up of a phosphate group, a five carbon sugar, and a nitrogen base. There are two types of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. The sugar in DNA is called deoxyribose. There are three types of RNA, mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. The structure of DNA is called double helix. The structure of DNA was discovered by Watson and Crick in the year Each DNA triplet codes for one amino acid. Adenine and Guanine are purines. Cytosine and Thymine are pyrimidines. Cytosine only bonds with Guanine. Thymine only bonds with Adenine. The end of the DNA with the phosphate group exposed is called 5’ prime. Histones are the proteins that DNA is wrapped around in the nucleus.
Activity Draw a DNA triplet with the 5’ end on the top left hand corner and the nitrogen sequence A-C-G on the left side, the complimentary base should be on the right.
Building a DNA Model Using the materials provided the people at your table will build a 12 base pair model of DNA. The Mike and Ikes are the nitrogen bases (red compliments with green, yellow compliments with orange), the marshmallows (or gumballs) are the phosphate groups, and the liquorice is the sugar. Remember to show the 5’ ends and the 3’ ends so we can string them all together.
DNA Complementary base pairing allows each strand of DNA to serve as a template for DNA replication Replication always proceeds from the 5’ to the 3’ DNA is an illustration of function following form (structure dictates function).
Replication Enzymes Helicase – splits the double helix DNA polymerase – attaches the free-floating nucleotides to the exposed nitrogen bases of the original DNA RNA primase – inserts short, temporary strands of RNA during replication. Exonuclease – strips away the RNA strands Ligase – inserts phosphate groups in any gaps that are left Replication Replication Enzymes
DNA Replication There is one old strand and one new strand in each daughter molecule after replication
RNA Different from DNA in that: – the five carbon sugar is ribose – it is generally single stranded – Contains Uracil instead of Thymine
RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) – Called messenger RNA because they serve as “messengers” from DNA to the rest of the cell – A sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA is called a codon.
Draw a mRNA strand with one codon. Include Uracil as one of the nitrogen bases
RNA Transfer RNA (tRNA) – odd shaped molecules with about 75 nucleotides in it’s structure. – 3 exposed nitrogen bases called anti-codons. – tRNA molecules carry amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis – each tRNA molecule can only carry one amino acid
RNA Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – The RNA is the main structural component of ribosomes APE
RNA A ribosome consists of 2 subunits: 50s sub-unit and a 30s sub-unit compose a 80s ribosome.