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SC STANDARD B-4 STUDENTS WILL DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY.

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Presentation on theme: "SC STANDARD B-4 STUDENTS WILL DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 SC STANDARD B-4 STUDENTS WILL DEMONSTRATE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE MOLECULAR BASIS OF HEREDITY

2 EQ: HOW WOULD YOU COMPARE TRANSCRIPTION &TRANSLATION? Notebook: page 98

3 are coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within a cell.

4 single stranded nucleic acid 5-carbon sugar is ribose 1 phosphate group 1 of 4 nitrogenous bases: 1. adenine 2. guanine 3. cytosine 4. uracil

5 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries copies of instructions for assembling proteins from the gene (in nucleus)  ribosomes

6 single strand of nucleotides read in groups of 3 called codons look at the 2 codons on this slide: What sequence of nucleotides on DNA did this segment of mRNA come from?

7 with proteins make up ribosomes ribosomes made of 2 subunits: 30S and 50S

8 transfers each of the amino acids to the ribosome as is specified by the code in mRNA one end has the anticodon other end the a.a.

9 anticodon: group of 3 bases that are complimentary to the codon on mRNA

10 TRANSCRIPTION INVOLVES TRANSCRIBING (copying) THE CODE IN DNA MAKING mRNA INVOLVES TRANSLATING the CODE into AMINO ACIDS  POLYPEPTIDE CHAINS  PROTEINS mRNA, tRNA, rRNA TRANSLATION

11 mRNA molecules are made by copying part of a nucleotide sequence of DNA into a complimentary (C’) sequence in mRNA Steps: 1. RNA Polymerase opens DNA 2.RNA Polymerase uses 1 of the DNA strands as template uses C’ base pair rules

12 RNA Polymerase binds to DNA at certain points called “promoters”

13 after unwinding a short portion of the double helix, RNA Polymerase moves along 1 of the DNA strands making a strand of RNA using base-pair rules except there is no T in RNA: A is paired with U (Uracil)

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16 RNA Polymerase moves along the DNA until it hits a signal to stop. this strand of RNA is called pre-mRNA

17 portions of DNA called introns do not code for proteins DNA portions that code for proteins called exons. introns get cut out of pre-mRNA and the exons get spliced together http://www.dnalc.org/view/16938-3D- Animation-of-RNA-Splicing.html http://www.dnalc.org/view/16938-3D- Animation-of-RNA-Splicing.html

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19 http://www.johnkyrk.com/DNAtranscription.html

20 is the “language” of the mRNA instructions written in a language that only has 4 “letters”: G, C, A, & U must code for 20 amino acids is read 3 letters at a time every 3 consecutive letters codes for 1 of the 20 a.a., a start signal, or a stop

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22 codon: is a “word” in the code consists of 3 consecutive nucleotides that specify an a.a., a stop, or a start

23 Page of Notebook: page 105 “Crack the Code” Quick Lab from page 303 of textbook

24 cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins

25 Step 1 mRNA attaches to ribosome 1 st codon codes for methionine tRNA with anticodon complimentary to codon in mRNA attaches to ribosome, delivering correct a.a. Step 2

26 Step 3 peptide bond forms between a.a brought to ribosome by 1 st & 2 nd tRNA ribosome only holds 2 tRNA so 1 st one leaves ribosome as 3 rd one “docks” Process repeated until “stop” codon Step 4

27 Step 5 polypeptide chain falls off ribosome Ribosome free to start another peptide chain http://www.wisc- online.com/Objects/Vie wObject.aspx?ID=AP130 2 https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=Ikq9AcBcoh A http://www.wisc- online.com/Objects/Vie wObject.aspx?ID=AP130 2 https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=Ikq9AcBcoh A http://www.dnalc.org/re sources/3d/TranslationB asic_withFX0.html http://www.dnalc.org/re sources/3d/TranslationB asic_withFX0.html Animations

28 TRANSCRIPTION DNA  mRNA nucleus mRNA  cytoplasm or RER mRNA + ribosome + tRNA  protein TRANSLATION

29 http://www.wiley.com/college/boyer/ 0470003790/animations/translation/t ranslation.htm

30 http://www.yourgenome.org/vi deo/from-dna-to-protein-flash http://sepuplhs.org/high/sgi /teachers/genetics_act16_si m.html http://highered.mheducation.com/olcweb/c gi/pluginpop.cgi?it=swf::535::535::/sites/dl/fr ee/0072437316/120077/micro06.swf::Protein +Synthesis

31 Handout: Genetic Code for Keratin Page of Notebook: 99 Answer questions 1-4


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