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 Trait: characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition  Factor Analysis ▪ Statistical procedure to correlate individual traits to identify larger.

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Presentation on theme: " Trait: characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition  Factor Analysis ▪ Statistical procedure to correlate individual traits to identify larger."— Presentation transcript:


2  Trait: characteristic pattern of behavior or disposition  Factor Analysis ▪ Statistical procedure to correlate individual traits to identify larger “clusters” of behavior ▪ Examples  Eysneck Personality Questionnaire  Big Five Factors  Personality Inventories ▪ Long questionnaires that cover broad feelings & behaviors ▪ Example: MMPI

3  Developed Trait Theory  Opposed to Freud  Describe traits, don’t explain them  18,000 Traits

4  Personality has two basic dimensions ▪ Extraversion v. Introversion ▪ Stability v. Instability  Genetically influenced  PET scans-Frontal Lobe activity & inhibition  ANS reactivity & risk taking behaviors  Breeding patterns in dogs, birds, etc

5  Updated & Expanded version of Eysneck’s questionnaire  Dimensions:  Conscientiousness  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  Openness  Extraversion

6  Developed assesses abnormal personality ▪ Most popular personality test – translated into 100 languages ▪ Question: T/F “Noting in the newspaper interests me except the comics”  Revised in 1989 to broader than abnormal behavior

7  Sort individuals based on Jung’s indicators  Four base traits  Extrovert v. Introvert (E v. I)  Sensing v. Intuition (S v. N)  Feeling v. Thinking (F v. T)  Judging v. Perceiving (J v. P)  National Research Council:  “Absence of proven scientific worth”

8 I like getting my energy from active involvement in events and having a lot of different activities. I’m excited when I’m around people and I like to energize other people. I like moving into action and making things happen. I generally feel at home in the world. I often understand a problem better when I can talk out loud about it and hear what others have to say. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I am seen as “outgoing” or as a “people person.” ▪ I feel comfortable in groups and like working in them. ▪ I have a wide range of friends and know lots of people. ▪ I sometimes jump too quickly into an activity and don’t allow enough time to think it over. ▪ Before I start a project, I sometimes forget to stop and get clear on what I want to do and why.

9 I like getting my energy from dealing with the ideas, pictures, memories, and reactions that are inside my head, in my inner world. I often prefer doing things alone or with one or two people I feel comfortable with. I take time to reflect so that I have a clear idea of what I’ll be doing when I decide to act. Ideas are almost solid things for me. Sometimes I like the idea of something better than the real thing. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I am seen as “reflective” or “reserved.” ▪ I feel comfortable being alone and like things I can do on my own. ▪ I prefer to know just a few people well. ▪ I sometimes spend too much time reflecting and don’t move into action quickly enough. ▪ I sometimes forget to check with the outside world to see if my ideas really fit the experience.

10 Paying attention to physical reality, what I see, hear, touch, taste, and smell. I’m concerned with what is actual, present, current, and real. I notice facts and I remember details that are important to me. I like to see the practical use of things and learn best when I see how to use what I’m learning. Experience speaks to me louder than words. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I remember events as snapshots of what actually happened. ▪ I solve problems by working through facts until I understand the problem. ▪ I am pragmatic and look to the “bottom line.” ▪ I start with facts and then form a big picture. ▪ I trust experience first and trust words and symbols less. ▪ Sometimes I pay so much attention to facts, either present or past, that I miss new possibilities.

11 Paying the most attention to impressions or the meaning and patterns of the information I get. I would rather learn by thinking a problem through than by hands-on experience. I’m interested in new things and what might be possible, so that I think more about the future than the past. I like to work with symbols or abstract theories, even if I don’t know how I will use them. I remember events more as an impression of what it was like than as actual facts or details of what happened. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I remember events by what I read “between the lines” about their meaning. ▪ I solve problems by leaping between different ideas and possibilities. ▪ I am interested in doing things that are new and different. ▪ I like to see the big picture, then to find out the facts. ▪ I trust impressions, symbols, and metaphors more than what I actually experienced ▪ Sometimes I think so much about new possibilities that I never look at how to make them a reality.

12 I believe I can make the best decisions by weighing what people care about and the points-of-view of persons involved in a situation. I am concerned with values and what is the best for the people involved. I like to do whatever will establish or maintain harmony. In my relationships, I appear caring, warm, and tactful. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I have a people or communications orientation. ▪ I am concerned with harmony and nervous when it is missing. ▪ I look for what is important to others and express concern for others. ▪ I make decisions with my heart and want to be compassionate. ▪ I believe being tactful is more important than telling the “cold” truth. ▪ Sometimes I miss seeing or communicating the “hard truth” of situations. ▪ I am sometimes experienced by others as too idealistic, mushy, or indirect.

13 When I make a decision, I like to find the basic truth or principle to be applied, regardless of the specific situation involved. I like to analyze pros and cons, and then be consistent and logical in deciding. I try to be impersonal, so I won’t let my personal wishes--or other people’s wishes--influence me. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I enjoy technical and scientific fields where logic is important. ▪ I notice inconsistencies. ▪ I look for logical explanations or solutions to most everything. ▪ I make decisions with my head and want to be fair. ▪ I believe telling the truth is more important than being tactful. ▪ Sometimes I miss or don’t value the “people” part of a situation. ▪ I can be seen as too task-oriented, uncaring, or indifferent.

14 I use my decision-making preference in my outer life. To others, I seem to prefer a planned or orderly way of life, like to have things settled and organized, feel more comfortable when decisions are made, and like to bring life under control as much as possible. Since this pair only describes what I prefer in the outer world, I may, inside, feel flexible and open to new information. Do not confuse Judging with judgmental, in its negative sense about people and events. They are not related. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I like to have things decided. ▪ I appear to be task oriented. ▪ I like to make lists of things to do. ▪ I like to get my work done before playing. ▪ I plan work to avoid rushing just before a deadline. ▪ Sometimes I focus so much on the goal that I miss new information.

15 I use my perceiving function in my outer life. To others, I seem to prefer a flexible and spontaneous way of life, and I like to understand and adapt to the world rather than organize it. Others see me staying open to new experiences and information. Since this pair only describes what I prefer in the outer world, inside I may feel very planful or decisive. Remember, in type language perceiving means “preferring to take in information.” It does not mean being “perceptive” in the sense of having quick and accurate perceptions about people and events. The following statements generally apply to me: ▪ I like to stay open to respond to whatever happens. ▪ I appear to be loose and casual. I like to keep plans to a minimum. ▪ I like to approach work as play or mix work and play. ▪ I work in bursts of energy. ▪ I am stimulated by an approaching deadline. ▪ Sometimes I stay open to new information so long I miss making decisions when they are needed.

16 Traits Outgoing, social, disorganized, easily talked into doing silly things, spontaneous, wild and crazy, acts without thinking, good at getting people to have fun, pleasure seeking, irresponsible, physically affectionate, risk taker, thrill seeker, likely to have or want a tattoo, adventurous, unprepared, attention seeking, hyperactive, irrational, loves crowds, rule breaker, prone to losing things, seductive, easily distracted, open, revealing, comfortable in unfamiliar situations, attracted to strange things, non punctual, likes to stand out, likes to try new things, fun seeker, unconventional, energetic, impulsive, empathetic, dangerous, loving, attachment prone, prone to fantasy Favored careers Performer, actor, entertainer, songwriter, musician, filmmaker, comedian, radio broadcaster/dj, some job related to theater/drama, poet, music journalist, work in fashion industry, singer, movie producer, playwright, bartender, comic book author, work in television, dancer, artist, record store owner, model, freelance artist, teacher (art, drama, music), writer, painter, massage therapist, costume designer, choreographer, make up artist Disfavored careers Data analyst, scientist, researcher, financial advisor, business analyst, govt employee, office manager, mathematician, investment banker, office worker, computer tech, it professional, network engineer, strategist

17 Traits Outgoing, social, attention seeking, emotional, loving, organized, comfortable around others, involved, open, hyperactive, complimentary, punctual, considerate, altruistic, easily hurt, religious, neat, content, positive, affectionate, image conscious, good at getting people to have fun, easily excited, perfectionist, assertive, ambitious, leader, hard working, seductive, touchy, group oriented, anti-tattoos Favored careers: Casting directory, film critic, wedding planner, work in the performing arts, teacher (art, preschool, elementary), actor, fashion designer, news anchor, fashion merchandiser, school psychologist, broadcaster, stylist, interior designer, event coordinator, restaurant owner, childcare worker, hair stylist, film director, counselor, dancer Disfavored careers Race car driver, scientist, computer specialist, airline pilot, computer programmer, financial manager, epidemiologist, truck driver, electrical engineer, software designer, web designer, business consultant, dj, bookseller

18 Traits risk taker, easy going, outgoing, social, open, rule breaker, thrill seeker, life of the party, comfortable in unfamiliar situations, appreciates strangeness, disorganized, adventurous, talented at presentation, aggressive, attention seeking, experience junky, insensitive, adaptable, not easily offended, messy, carefree, dangerous, fearless, careless, emotionally stable, spontaneous, improviser, always joking, player, wild and crazy, dominant, acts without thinking, not into organized religion, pro-weed legalization Favored careers: dictator, computer consultant, international spy, tv producer, philosopher, comedian, music performer, it consultant, fighter pilot, politician, diplomat, entertainer, game designer, bar owner, freelance writer, creative director, strategist, news anchor, professional skateboarder, airline pilot, comic book artist, college professor, private detective, mechanical engineer, lecturer, ambassador, astronomer, research scientist, judge, web developer, scholar, fbi agent, cia agent, electrical engineer, assassin Disfavored careers personal assistant, wedding planner, travel agent, secretary, interior decorator, clerical employee, government employee, social worker, pre school teacher, copy editor, child care worker, hospitality worker, occupational therapist, home maker

19 Traits decisive, fearless, planner, thrill seeker, engaged, social, self centered, comfortable around others, image conscious, likes to be center of attention, adventurous, outgoing, manipulative, emotionally stable, leader, ambitious, hard working, dominant, prepared, hates to be bored, confident, opinionated, analytical, prepares for worst case scenarios, organized, orderly, clean, driven, resourceful, finishes most things they start, achieving, risk taker, desires fame/acclaim, image focused, narcissistic, arrogant, perfectionist, driven, academic, scientific, critical, avoids giving in to others, does not like to compromise, skeptical Favored careers: marketing specialist, government employee, lawyer, developer, political scientist, bounty hunter, international relations specialist, software designer, systems analyst, business manager, entertainment lawyer, foreign service officer, strategist, project manager, advertising executive, cia agent, marketing manager, geneticist, private investigator, administrator, business analyst, politician, management consultant, producer, financial advisor, entrepreneur, genetics researcher, cardiologist, professor, fbi agent Disfavored careers singer, bookstore owner, job in the performing arts, poet, photographer, english professor, chef, health care worker, child psychologist, massage therapist, video editor

20 Traits organized, group oriented, focused, conventional, leader, emotionally stable, anal, attention seeking, planner, realistic, fearless, responsible, finisher, decisive, norm following, respects authority, punctual, hard working, stiff, self confident, thinks rules and regulations are important, follows the rules, clean, outgoing, social, content, does not like being alone, normal, regular, does not like weird or strange people / things - intolerant of differences, strict, disciplined, aggressive, assertive, content, happy, proper, formal, strict with self, meticulous, strong sense of purpose Favored careers: executive, ceo, supervisor, business consultant, manager, strategist, financial planner, business person, office manager, public relations manager, international business specialist, business analyst, management consultant, operations manager, loan officer, lawyer, marketing, sports management, government employee, investment banker Disfavored careers poet, artist, songwriter, musician, novelist, art therapist, theatre teacher, art curator, film editor, video game designer, photo journalist, travel writer, actor, record store owner, camera operator, art historian, music teacher

21 Traits does not like being alone, thinks life has purpose/meaning, organized, values organized religion, outgoing, social, does not like strange people/things - likely intolerant of differences, open, easy to read, dislikes science fiction, values relationships and families over intellectual pursuits, group oriented, follows the rules, affectionate, planner, regular, orderly, clean, finisher, religious, consults others before acting, content, positive, loves getting massages, complimentary, dutiful, loving, considerate, altruistic Favored careers: wedding planner, social worker, pediatrician, public health employee, kindergarten teacher, business consultant, nurse, human resources manager, office manager, executive assistant, public relations specialist, medical employee, human resources, office worker, social services, child care worker Disfavored careers artist, author, filmmaker, philosopher, video editor, musician, poet, tattoo artist, game designer, philosophy professor, international spy, film director, astronaut, art curator, scientist, computer consultant, cartoonist, graphics designer

22 Traits content, emotionally stable, outgoing, social, group oriented, finisher, does not like to be alone, open, decisive, likes external praise, likes to be center of attention, frequently joking, adjusts easily, likes crowds, self confident, neutral moods, good at getting people to have fun, disorganized, messy, talented at presentation, not easily annoyed, does not like to be alone, enjoys crude jokes, likes to lead, likes sports, more likely to come off as masculine, risk taker, tends to dominate conversations, fearless, can handle criticism, hard to discourage Favored careers: ceo, sports management, fighter pilot, marketing specialist, business manager, race car driver, supervisor, economist, airline pilot, bar owner, consultant, cia agent, security specialist, technician, businessman, mechanical engineer, public relations specialist, coach, manager, marketing director, sales associate, mechanic, politician, publicist Disfavored careers poet, artist, art teacher, novelist, bookstore owner, graphics designer, museum curator, librarian, freelance writer, author, florist, painter, school psychologist, songwriter, musician, professional college student, editor, philosopher, english professor

23 Traits outgoing, social, group oriented, dislikes science fiction, does not like to be alone, feels at ease around others, conventional, talkative, modest, does not like to be alone, good at getting people to have fun, values relationships and family over intellectual pursuits, open, likes to dance, spontaneous, underachieving, at times unprepared, emotional, values organized religion, suggestible, at times easy to impress, not analytical, disorganized, prone to crying, likes to be center of attention, happy, trusts others, can be influenced more by others than self, can be touchy feely, feels the emotions of others, likes teamwork, guided by moods Favored careers: public relations manager, school teacher, radio dj, customer service, emt, hair stylist, event coordinator, pediatric nurse, child care worker, makeup artist, personal trainer, public relations, human resources, travel agent, massage therapist, physical therapist, interior decorator Disfavored careers bookstore owner, author, researcher, painter, artist, scientist, philosophy professor, art director, computer programmer, freelance writer, history professor, web developer, paleontologist, book editor, cia agent, aerospace engineer, archeologist, webmaster

24 Traits creative, smart, idealist, loner, attracted to sad things, disorganized, avoidant, can be overwhelmed by unpleasant feelings, prone to quitting, prone to feelings of loneliness, ambivalent of the rules, solitary, daydreams about people to maintain a sense of closeness, focus on fantasies, acts without planning, low self confidence, emotionally moody, can feel defective, prone to lateness, likes esoteric things, wounded at the core, feels shame, frequently losing things, prone to sadness, prone to dreaming about a rescuer, disorderly, observer, easily distracted, does not like crowds, can act without thinking, private, can feel uncomfortable around others, familiar with the darkside, hermit, more likely to support marijuana legalization, can sabotage self, likes the rain, sometimes can't control fearful thoughts, prone to crying, prone to regret, attracted to the counter culture, can be submissive, prone to feeling discouraged, frequently second guesses self, not punctual, not always prepared, can feel victimized, prone to confusion, prone to irresponsibility, can be pessimistic Favored careers: poet, painter, freelance artist, musician, writer, art therapist, teacher (art, music, drama), songwriter, art historian, library assistant, composer, work in the performing arts, art curator, playwrite, bookseller, cartoonist, video editor, photographer, philosopher, record store owner, digital artist, cinematographer, costume designer, film producer, philosophy professor, librarian, music therapist, environmentalist, movie director, activist, bookstore owner, filmmaker Disfavored careers business professional, manager, executive, administrator, business owner, supervisor, office manager, business analyst, financial analyst, public relations manager, ceo, executive assistant, judge, event coordinator, lawyer, office worker

25 Traits creative, smart, focus on fantasy more than reality, attracted to sad things, fears doing the wrong thing, observer, avoidant, fears drawing attention to self, anxious, cautious, somewhat easily frightened, easily offended, private, easily hurt, socially uncomfortable, emotionally moody, does not like to be looked at, fearful, perfectionist, can sabotage self, can be wounded at the core, values solitude, guarded, does not like crowds, organized, second guesses self, more likely to support marijuana legalization, focuses on peoples hidden motives, prone to crying, not competitive, prone to feelings of loneliness, not spontaneous, prone to sadness, longs for a stabilizing relationship, fears rejection in relationships, frequently worried, can feel victimized, prone to intimidation, lower energy, strict with self Favored careers: psychotherapist, artist, art curator, bookstore owner, freelance writer, poet, teacher (art, drama, english), library assistant, professor of english, painter, novelist, book editor, copywriter, philosopher, environmentalist, bookseller, museum curator, opera singer, magazine editor, archivist, music therapist, screenwriter, film director, creative director, librarian, social services worker, art historian, sign language interpreter, photo journalist, makeup artist, photo journalist, homemaker Disfavored careers airline pilot, race car driver, businessman, information technology consultant, executive, administrator, supervisor, bartender, lab technician, restaurant owner, strategist, ceo, bar owner, marketing specialist, business consultant

26 Traits loner, more interested in intellectual pursuits than relationships or family, wrestles with the meaninglessness of existence, likes esoteric things, disorganized, messy, likes science fiction, can be lonely, observer, private, can't describe feelings easily, detached, likes solitude, not revealing, unemotional, rule breaker, avoidant, familiar with the darkside, skeptical, acts without consulting others, does not think they are weird but others do, socially uncomfortable, abrupt, fantasy prone, does not like happy people, appreciates strangeness, frequently loses things, acts without planning, guarded, not punctual, more likely to support marijuana legalization, not prone to compromise, hard to persuade, relies on mind more than on others, calm Favored careers: philosopher, game designer, scientist, software engineer, freelance artist, research scientist, assassin, freelance writer, physicist, software developer, mathematician, geologist, computer scientist, philosophy professor, webmaster, slacker, medical researcher, painter, mortician, systems analyst, comic book artist, computer technician, website designer, scholar, archeologist, computer repair, forensic anthropologist, astronaut, researcher, historian, systems engineer, genetics researcher, astronomer, environmental scientist, egyptologist Disfavored careers human resources, public relations, social worker, guidance counselor, health care worker, trainer, school teacher, wedding planner, movie star, hospitality worker, supervisor, child care worker, fundraiser, customer service, stay at home parent, office administrator

27 Traits loner, more interested in intellectual pursuits than relationships or family, not very altruistic, not very complimentary, would rather be friendless than jobless, observer, values solitude, perfectionist, detached, private, not much fun, hidden, skeptical, does not tend to like most people, socially uncomfortable, not physically affectionate, unhappy, does not talk about feelings, hard to impress, analytical, likes esoteric things, tends to be pessimistic, not spontaneous, prone to discontentment, guarded, does not think they are weird but others do, responsible, can be insensitive or ambivalent to the misfortunes of others, orderly, clean, organized, familiar with darkside, tends not to value organized religion, suspicious of others, can be lonely, rarely shows anger, punctual, finisher, prepared Favored careers: scientist, dictator, forensic anthropologist, systems analyst, philosopher, nuclear engineer, political analyst, researcher, statistician, scholar, research scientist, computer scientist, software designer, curator, computer programmer, aerospace engineer, electrical engineer, paleontologist, english professor, philosophy professor, chemical engineer, epidemiologist, forensic scientist, museum curator, research assistant, mechanic, astronomer, figher pilot, librarian, systems administrator, neurosurgeon, book editor, biotechnology, archeologist, lab tech, bookstore owner Disfavored careers advertising executive, job in entertainment industry, performer, singer, art therapist, childcare worker, bartender, dj, even coordinator, hair dresser, wedding planner

28 Traits responsible, planner, private, loner tendencies, perfectionist, organized, detail oriented, organized, would rather be friendless than jobless, realistic, observer, clean, focused, does not talk about feelings, finisher, punctual, private, does not appreciate strangeness, not adventurous, not spontaneous, follows the rules, dutiful, avoids mistakes, conventional, likes solitude, insensitive to the hardships of others, prepared, anti-tattoos, things rules are important, cautious, security seeking, prepares for worst case scenarios, logical, analytical, does not accept apologies easily, hard working Favored careers: data analyst, scientist, researcher, engineer, financial planner, statistician, office worker, government employee, lab technician, nuclear engineer, office manager, biomedical engineer, account manager, ceo, investment banker, analyst, academic, systems analyst, pharmacy technician, network admin, genetics researcher, research assistant, strategist Disfavored careers entertainer, artist, filmmaker, musician, actor, fashion desinger, singer, music journalist, comedian, massage therapist, photographer, dj, model, author, bartender, painter, school counselor

29 Traits follows the rules, polite, fears drawing attention to self, dislikes competition, somewhat easily frightened, easily offended, timid, dutiful, private, lower energy, finisher, organized, socially uncomfortable, modest, not confrontational, easily hurt, observer, prone to crying, not spontaneous, does not appreciate strangeness - intolerant to differences, apprehensive, clean, planner, prone to confusion, afraid of many things, responsible, guarded, avoidant, anxious, cautious, suspicious, more interested in relationships and family than intellectual pursuits, not adventurous, fears doing the wrong thing, dislikes change Favored careers: homemaker, stay at home parent, office worker, health care worker, personal assistant, school teacher, administrative assistant, child care worker, clerical employee, receptionist, library assistant, dietitian, health educator, librarian Disfavored careers rock star, philosophy professor, filmmaker, performer, writer, bar owner, comedian, dj, entertainer, ceo, psychotherapist, bartender, entrepreneur, lecturer, astronomer

30 Traits hidden, private, has trouble describing feelings, not very affectionate, loner tendencies, lower energy, can be insensitive to the misfortunes of others, disorganized, messy, fears drawing attention to self, anti- tattoos, anti counter culture, not comfortable in unfamiliar situations, avoidant, rather unemotional, does not like attention, more interested in intellectual pursuits than relationships or family, hermetic, not complimentary, dislikes leadership, more submissive then domineering Favored careers: aerospace engineer, technician, computer scientist, software engineer, software developer, scientist, bar owner, automotive technician, electrician, engineer, mathematician, industrial engineer, nuclear engineer, biotechnology, mechanic, systems analyst, computer animator, data analyst, video game designer Disfavored careers artist, fashion designer, theater director, poet, dancer, actor, singer, english teacher or professor, art teacher, healer, stage manager, florist, art therapist, school teacher, music journalist

31 Traits disorganized, timid, prone to discouragement, socially uncomfortable, does not like leadership, suggestible, not self confident, not aggressive, lower energy, fearful, anxious, easily distracted, prone to discontentment, guarded, not confrontational, prone to longing for a stabilizing relationship, can be overwhelmed by unpleasant feelings, easily disturbed, fears drawing attention to self, prone to confusion, private, second guesses self, prone to quitting, underachiever, fears rejection in relationships, emotionally moody, prone to sadness, dislikes change, indecisive, modest, doubting, prone to laziness Favored careers: sports management, pediatrician, school teacher, carpenter, veterinary technician, singer, health educator, stay at home parent, hospitality worker, pastor, athlete, physician assistant, photographer, health care worker, shop assistant, stylist, website designer Disfavored careers professor, marketing, academic, criminal psychologist, politician, comic book artist, actor, psychoanalyst, dj, judge, entrepreneur, attorney

32  Stability v. Dynamics ; Person v. Situation  Does personality remain the same or change over time?  Does our behavior remain consistent in all settings & situations?  Nature v. Nurture  What’s more important: a person’s genetic code or the environment in which they are living?  West v. East ; Developed v. Developing Nations  Personality traits seem to be common across all human groups (McCrae et al, 2005)  Predictor of Behavior  Conscientiousness = Early Riser  Night Owls = Extraverts  Opposites “Repel”

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