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4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 4e Nelson/Quick ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Chapter 9 Work Teams and Groups

2 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Outcomes  Define group and work team  Explain the benefits organizations and individuals derive from working in teams  Identify the factors that influence group behavior  Describe how groups form and develop 2

3 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Learning Outcomes  Explain how task and maintenance functions influence group performance  Discuss the factors that influence group effectiveness  Describe how empowerment relates to self- managed teams  Explain the importance of upper echelons and top management teams 3

4 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Define group and work team Learning Outcome 4

5 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Groups and Teams  Group: Two or more people with common interests, objectives, and continuing interaction  Work team: Group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common:  Mission  Performance goals  Approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable 5

6 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Explain the benefits organizations and individuals derive from working in teams Learning Outcome 6

7 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Why Teams?  Accomplish complicated, complex, interrelated or voluminous work  Teamwork: Joint action by a team in which individual interests are subordinated to team unity  Benefit for organizations - Encourages collaboration  Benefits for individuals  Psychological intimacy: Emotional and psychological closeness to other team or group members  Integrated involvement: Closeness achieved through tasks and activities 7

8 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Beyond the Book: Two CEOs?  Apparel retailer Aeropostale is challenging convential wisdom by appointing co-CEOs  The move is risky, given the recession  Other companies have made this structure work – California Pizza Kitchen, Chipotle, Motorola, Research in Motion, Twitter  The most successful teams are those with complimentary talents, composed of the organization’s veterans who worked together for some time 8

9 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Table 9.1- New Team Environment versus Old Work Environment 9

10 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Identify the factors that influence group behavior Learning Outcomes 10

11 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Group Behavior  Norms of behavior: Group standards to evaluate the behavior of its members  Group cohesion: Interpersonal glue that makes members of a group stick together  Social loafing: Failure of a member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources  Loss of individuality: Individual group members' loss of self-awareness, sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior 11

12 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe how groups form and develop Learning Outcomes 12

13 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Issues Addressed by Groups  Interpersonal issues  Matters of trust, personal comfort, and security  Task issues  Mission or purpose, methods, expected outcomes  Authority issues  Leadership, managing power and influence, communication flow 13

14 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Types of Groups  Formal groups  Official or assigned groups gathered to perform various tasks  Informal groups  Groups that evolve in the work setting to meet needs not met by formal groups  Ethnic, gender, cultural and interpersonal diversity is critical to all types of groups 14

15 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure The Five Stage Model 15

16 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Mature Group Characteristics  Purpose and mission  Questioned, reexamined, and modified by groups for its mission and purpose  Mission converted into specific agenda, clear goals, and a set of critical success factors  Behavioral norms  Well-understood standards of behavior in a group  Evolve around performance and productivity 16

17 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Mature Group Characteristics  Groups with high cohesiveness demonstrate:  Lower tension and anxiety and less variation in productivity  Better member satisfaction, commitment, and communication  Status structure: Set of authority and task relations among a group’s members  Hierarchical or egalitarian, depending on the group 17

18 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure Cohesiveness and Work- Related Tension * 18

19 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Beyond the Book: What You Don’t Want in a Team  In his new book How The Mighty Fall: And Why Some Companies Never Give In, Jim Collins identifies a number of characteristics of ineffective teams:  People shield those in power from unpleasant facts  People assert strong facts without data  Team members don’t unify to make a decision  Team members try to take as much credit as possible  Team members blame others for failures 19

20 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Explain how task and maintenance functions influence group performance Learning Outcomes 20

21 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Table 9.2- Task and Maintenance Functions in Teams or Groups 21

22 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Discuss the factors that influence group effectiveness Learning Outcomes 22

23 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Factors that Influence Group Effectiveness Work team structure Goals and objectives, guidelines, performance measures, and role specification Work team process Managing cooperative and competitive behaviors Diversity Enhances group effectiveness Types of member contribution - Contributor, collaborator, communicator, and challenger Creativity Enhanced through encouraging greater diversity within the team 23

24 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Describe how empowerment relates to self- managed teams Learning Outcomes 24

25 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Empowerment Skills 25 Competence skills Process skills Cooperative and helping behaviors Communication skills

26 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Self-Managed Teams  Self-directed teams or autonomous work groups  Make decisions that are otherwise reserved for managers  Help implement empowerment in organizations 26

27 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Explain the importance of upper echelons and top management teams Learning Outcomes 27

28 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Echelons  Self-managed teams at the top-level of an organization  Upper echelon theory  Background characteristics of top management team predict organizational characteristics  Set standards for values, competence, ethics, and unique characteristics in the organization  Key to the strategic success of the organization 28

29 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Table The Five Seasons of a CEO’s Tenure 29

30 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Figure Executive Tenure and Organizational Performance 30

31 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Upper Echelons  Diversity at the top  Help sustain high levels of organizational performance at the peak  Help maintain the CEO’s vitality  Multicultural top teams  Diversity increases uncertainty, complexity, and inherent confusion in group processes  Culturally diverse groups generate more and better ideas and limit groupthink 31

32 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Friends with Money  This chapter defined group as “two or more people who have common interests, objectives and continuing interaction.” Does this film sequence have examples of each part of that definition? Identify specific moments that fit the definition  Review the section “Stages of Group Development.” Apply that discussion to both film sequences. You should see examples of each stage  Does the samll group in these film sequnces appear cohesive? Cite some specific moments from the film sequences to support your conclusion 32

33 ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. Holden Outerwear  Is design manager Nikki Brush a part of a group or part of a work team? Explain the difference  What changes in technology made it possible for designer Nikki Brush to be a member of Holden’s work teams while she was an outside freelancer?  What are the potential disadvantages of teams for Holden’s apparel designers? What can managers do to help minimize these downsides? 33


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