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3.3:DNA Structure. 3.3.1: Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.

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Presentation on theme: "3.3:DNA Structure. 3.3.1: Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate."— Presentation transcript:

1 3.3:DNA Structure

2 3.3.1: Outline DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate.

3 3.3.2: State the names of the four bases in DNA.

4 3.3.3: Outline how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand.

5 3.3.4: Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds.

6 3.3.5:Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA.

7 Draw a labeled diagram to show four DNA nucleotides, each with a different base, linked together in two strands, showing antiparallel. [5]

8 IB QUESTION: IB QUESTION: Draw a labeled diagram to show four DNA nucleotides, each with a different base, linked together in two strands. [5] Award [1] for each of these structures clearly drawn and labelled. four nucleotides shown in diagram with one nucleotide clearly labelled; base, phosphate and deoxyribose (shown as pentagon) connected between the correct carbons and labelled at least once; backbone labelled as covalent bond between nucleotides correctly shown as 3 to 5 bond; two base pairs linked by hydrogen bonds drawn as dotted lines and labelled; two H bonds between A and T and three H bonds between C and G; adenine to thymine and cytosine to guanine; do not accept initials of bases antiparallel orientation shown; [5]

9 IB Question: IB Question: Draw and label a simple diagram to show how DNA is constructed from sugars,phosphates and bases. [6] Award [1] for each of the following clearly drawn and correctly labelled. labelled phosphate linked to labelled sugar by a single bond; labelled base linked to a labelled sugar by a single bond; correctly linked base, sugar and phosphate labelled as nucleotide; covalent bond(s) labelled between sugar and phosphate/between sugar and base; at least two nucleotides linked by a single sugar-phosphate bond; at least two nucleotides linked by base-base bonds; hydrogen bonds labelled between bases; A-T and/or G-C base pairing; phosphate and base shown linked to correct carbon atoms on sugar; [6 max]

10 Draw a labelled diagram to show how two nucleotides are joined together in a single strand of DNA. [3] M09/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX+

11 3.4: DNA Replication

12 3.4 Assessment Statements Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase. Explain the significance of the complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. State that DNA replication is semi- conservative

13 3.4.1: DNA Replication 3.4.1: Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase.

14 DNA must be able to replicate itself accurately, so when a cell divides the genetic code can still be passed on. DNA replication takes place in the nucleus during the S phase in interphase. This is not a haphazard process. An enzyme helicase unzips one region of the DNA and nucleotides are added in a step-by-step process from 3’-5’

15 1. The first step is to unzip the two strands. Helicase moves along the double helix, unwinding the two strands, which break apart easily because of the weak hydrogen bonds.

16 2. The unpaired nucleotides are exposed and each single strand now acts as a template for the formation of of a new complimentary strand. C with G and T with A.

17 3. The free nucleotide bases form complimentary pairs with the bases on the single DNA strands. DNA polymerase is the enzyme involved in linking the new nucleotides into place. Finally the two new DNA molecules are rewound, each forming a double helix.

18 3.4.2:Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA. The two new DNA strands that are produced are identical to the original. Complementary base pairing between the template strand and the new strand ensures that an accurate copy of the original is made every time. This is semi-conservative replication because no DNA molecule is every completely new. Every double helix contains one original and one new strand.

19 3.4.3: State that DNA replication is semi-conservative.

20 IB Question: Outline the significance of complementary base-pairing in DNA. when DNA replicates the 2 strands separate; each single strand acts as template/serves as a base for base-pair matching; free nucleotides of adenine/A bond only with thymine/T / vice versa and free nucleotides of cytosine/C bond only with guanine/G / vice versa; thus copying the opposite strand of the original DNA molecule; replication is semi-conservative; original order of bases is maintained/conserved; new DNA identical to parent molecule; (significance of base-pair matching) is that the information encoded in one DNA molecule is passed to others; DNA structure indicates the manner of DNA replication; [5 max]

21 IB Question: IB Question: The structure of the DNA double helix was described by Watson and Crick in Explain the structure of the DNA double helix, including its subunits and the way in which they are bonded together. subunits are nucleotides; one base, one deoxyribose and one phosphate in each nucleotide; description / diagram showing base linked to deoxyribose C1 and phosphate to C5 ; four different bases – adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine; nucleotides linked up with sugar-phosphate bonds; covalent / phosphodiester bonds; two strands (of nucleotides) linked together; base to base; A to T and G to C; hydrogen bonds between bases; antiparallel strands; double helix drawn or described; [8 max] Accept any of the points above if clearly explained in a diagram

22 What is the structure of RNA? Compare it with DNA Outline the process of DNA transcription. Where is it taking place? What is the purpose of DNA transcription? What is a codon? What do the code for?


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