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Do Now WRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!! 1. What macromolecule is DNA? 2. What is the subunit of DNA? 3. What is the shape of DNA? 4. Where is the DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Do Now WRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!! 1. What macromolecule is DNA? 2. What is the subunit of DNA? 3. What is the shape of DNA? 4. Where is the DNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Do Now WRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!! 1. What macromolecule is DNA? 2. What is the subunit of DNA? 3. What is the shape of DNA? 4. Where is the DNA located in a Eukaryotic Cell? 5. What are the 4 Nitrogen bases? 6. Adenine matches to _______ 7. Guanine matches to _______ 8. A segment of DNA has 500 bases, 30% are Adenine: 1. How many T? 2. How many G? 3. How many C?

2 What is DNA REPLICATION? NEW cells are made by copying OLD cells Before a cell divides, you have to copy or REPLICATE the DNA REVIEW! What stage of the cell cycle does DNA Replication happen in?

3 When does DNA Replication occur? During S –Phase of INTERPHASE S-Phase = Synthesis Phase The DNA Replicates (copies itself ) to prepare for cell division (MITOSIS!!!)

4 Why does DNA REPLICATE? To get ready for cell division  So each new cell has the same exact DNA!

5 What are the STEPS for DNA Replication? 1. An Enzyme “UNZIPS” the 2 strands of DNA by breaking the weak Hydrogen bonds 2. New nucleotides are added to the old stand  REVIEW: A = T and C = G 3. Another Enzyme “ZIPS” the strands back up 4. DNA Polymerase (an enzyme) “proofreads” the strands to make sure there are no MISTAKES! What do you think might happen if there are mistakes?!

6 What is the ROLE of ENZYMES?  Enzymes help to: 1. Split the DNA in half 2. Put DNA back together 3. Proofread for any mistakes in the base pairs

7 How is DNA Replication SEMI- CONSERVATIVE? When the DNA copies itself, it always has HALF of the parental (OLD) strand and HALF of the daughter (NEW) strand In other words: the DNA is HALF OLD and HALF NEW


9 What are MUTATIONS? Changes in the genetic code (DNA) Can be: positive, negative or neutral Causes: UV radiation, chemicals, bad DNA proofreading Can lead to CANCER

10 Stations Station 1: DNA Replication Practice Station 2: Modeling DNA Replication

11 DNA Complimentary Base Pairing 1. With you group, create a nucleotide with the parts you have -Pay special attention to what should connect 2. One group will line up in a straight line 3. Next the Complimentary pairs will match up

12 Protein Synthesis

13 How do your cells make PROTEINS? There are steps for turning the code in your DNA into PROTEINS in the process of protein synthesis (to MAKE proteins) Processes: 1) DNA Replication 2) Transcription 3) Translation

14 What are the KEY PLAYERS in Protein Synthesis? DNA RNA Ribosomes Proteins

15 WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DNA & RNA? DNARNA FunctionProvides instructions for making proteins Delivers the message to the Ribosome to make proteins Organic MoleculeNucleic Acid # of StrandsDouble StrandedSingle Stranded SugarDeoxyribose SugarRibose Sugar Nitrogen BasesA, T, G, CA, U, G, C Location(s) FoundNucleusNucleus & Cytoplasm

16 WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF RNA? Messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) -Carries the DNA code to the Ribosome -Bring the recipe to the factory -Links Amino Acids together -Delivers the ingredients -Makes up the Ribosome -The necklace factory

17 DNA vs. RNA Partner Matching With your partner, match each characteristic with either DNA or RNA When you are done, create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting DNA & RNA using your matching activity.  You must create at least 4 similarities! Write one paragraph comparing and contrasting DNA and RNA.  Do this independently!

18 Compare & Contrast

19 What is the CENTRAL DOGMA? DNA  (transcription)  RNA  (translation)  PROTEIN  (trait)

20 What is a GENE? A gene is a section of DNA that codes for 1 specific protein There are thousands of genes in your DNA There are steps for turning a gene (DNA) into a protein through protein synthesis

21 DNA Practice Problems

22 What is TRANSCRIPTION? The GOAL of TRANSCRIPTION is to turn DNA into an mRNA message DNA  mRNA message Re-Writing the DNA code in a slightly different language!

23 Where does Transcription take place? IN THE NUCLEUS!!! The DNA can NEVER leave the nucleus SO, the mRNA must go into the nucleus to pick up the DNA code to bring to the RIBOSOMES

24 What are the STEPS of Transcription? 1. DNA Polymerase (enzyme!) unzips the DNA 1. Uses the DNA template to make an mRNA (messanger RNA): remember, RNA uses U instead of T 1. mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm

25 YOU TRY DNA: A – T – C – C – G – A – G – T – T – A mRNA:

26 Transcription Stations Station 1: Transcription Practice Station 2: Practice EOC Questions

27 So… Now we know the DNA codes for the proteins that need to be made.. And, that mRNA picks that code up and brings it to the ribosome. But…then what?

28 Lost in Translation What does translation mean? When have you had to translate something?

29 What is TRANSLATION? The GOAL of TRANSLATION is the link amino acids together to make PROTEINS RNA  PROTEIN

30 Where does TRANSLATION take place? The CYTOPLASM and RIBOSOMES CYTOPLASM: because the mRNA travels our of the nucleus into the cytoplasm on the way to the Ribosome RIBOSOME: because this is where the proteins are actually made

31 What are the STEPS of Translation? 1. mRNA attaches to the ribosome 1. Ribosome “reads” the mRNA groups in THREE BASES = a CODON 1. a. Each CODON codes for a certain amino acid 2. A tRNA molecule comes along with the right ANTICODON to match the CODON 1. CODON = AAA ANTICODON = 2. CODON = UAG ANTICODON = 3. The tRNA molecules “carries” the amino acids and links them together with PEPTIDE bonds to make a PROTEIN

32 What is another name for PROTEINS? POLYPEPTIDES because they are made of many PEPTIDE BONDS



35 The RIBOSOME is like… A necklace factory. Because… The whole purpose of the factory is to make necklaces (proteins)

36 The DNA is like… The Boss Because… it tells the factory workers which type of necklaces to make.

37 The mRNA is like… The Secretary Because… it delivers the necklace recipes and orders to the factory  The Boss (DNA) tells the secretary (mRNA) which necklaces (proteins) need to be made  The secretary (mRNA) delivers the Boss’s (DNA) necklaces order to the factory (Ribosome)

38 The tRNA is like… The Delivery trucks Because… it drops off the ingredients to the factory for the correct necklaces to be made  The trucks (tRNA) drop off the ingredients – the beads (amino acids) - to make the necklaces (proteins) that the Boss (DNA) ordered

39 So… The Boss (DNA) gives the necklace orders and recipes to the Secretary (mRNA) to bring to the necklace factory (ribosomes). The Delivery Trucks (tRNA) bring the ingredients (amino acids) to the necklace factory (ribosome), where the necklaces (proteins) are made and then shipped out

40 With your partner.. Take 1 minutes to discuss the analogy and how the necklace factory relates to protein synthesis

41 But… What does this actually look like?

42 Annotate your drawing along with me…

43 Check Point 1) The diagram above depicts the process of ______________________________ synthesis, or how the cell makes proteins from DNA. 2) What is the name of the process happening inside the nucleus? 3) In one sentence, explain what happens in the nucleus. 4) To what organelle does mRNA go to after the first step of protein synthesis? 5) What step of protein synthesis happens here? 6) Explain what happens during the process you identified above.

44 Autoville Practice Using your knowledge of Protein Synthesis and the Cookie Analogy, Independently complete Autoville practice

45 Now… We know that the mRNA brings the recipe to make the proteins And, the tRNA brings the right ingredients (amino acids) to make the proteins And, the Ribosome actually puts the ingredients together to make the proteins BUT… How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring…?

46 GUIDED PRACTICE Translation

47 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

48 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA CTA Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

49 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA GCA Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

50 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA GGT Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

51 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA TTC CAC Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

52 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA GTA CAT Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

53 TRANSCRIPTION RACE DNA CCT GTA TCA Complementary Strand mRNA Amino Acids

54 PRACTICE Protein synthesis TAT

55 Codon Chart

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