Presentation on theme: "WRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!!"— Presentation transcript:
1WRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!! Do NowWRITE the QUESTIONS and ANSWER!!!What macromolecule is DNA?What is the subunit of DNA?What is the shape of DNA?Where is the DNA located in a Eukaryotic Cell?What are the 4 Nitrogen bases?Adenine matches to _______Guanine matches to _______A segment of DNA has 500 bases, 30% are Adenine:How many T?How many G?How many C?
2What is DNA REPLICATION? NEW cells are made by copyingOLD cellsBefore a cell divides, you have tocopy or REPLICATE the DNAREVIEW!What stage of the cell cycle doesDNA Replication happen in?
3When does DNA Replication occur? During S –Phase of INTERPHASES-Phase = Synthesis PhaseThe DNA Replicates (copies itself ) to prepare for cell division (MITOSIS!!!)
4Why does DNA REPLICATE? To get ready for cell division So each new cell has the same exact DNA!
5What are the STEPS for DNA Replication? An Enzyme “UNZIPS” the 2 strands of DNA by breaking the weak Hydrogen bondsNew nucleotides are added to the old standREVIEW: A = T and C = GAnother Enzyme “ZIPS” the strands back upDNA Polymerase (an enzyme) “proofreads” the strands to make sure there are no MISTAKES!What do you thinkmight happen ifthere are mistakes?!
6What is the ROLE of ENZYMES? Enzymes help to:1. Split the DNA in halfPut DNA back togetherProofread for any mistakes in the base pairs
7How is DNA Replication SEMI-CONSERVATIVE? When the DNA copies itself, it always has HALF of the parental (OLD) strand and HALF of the daughter (NEW) strandIn other words: the DNA is HALF OLD and HALF NEW
9What are MUTATIONS? Changes in the genetic code (DNA) Can be: positive, negative or neutralCauses: UV radiation, chemicals, bad DNA proofreadingCan lead to CANCER
10Stations Station 1: DNA Replication Practice Station 2: Modeling DNA Replication
11DNA Complimentary Base Pairing With you group, create a nucleotide with the parts you have-Pay special attention to what should connectOne group will line up in a straight lineNext the Complimentary pairs will match up
13How do your cells make PROTEINS? There are steps for turning the code in your DNA into PROTEINS in the process of protein synthesis (to MAKE proteins)Processes:DNA ReplicationTranscriptionTranslation
14What are the KEY PLAYERS in Protein Synthesis? DNARNARibosomesProteins
15WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DNA & RNA? FunctionProvides instructions for making proteinsDelivers the message to the Ribosome to make proteinsOrganic MoleculeNucleic Acid# of StrandsDouble StrandedSingle StrandedSugarDeoxyribose SugarRibose SugarNitrogen BasesA, T, G, CA, U, G, CLocation(s) FoundNucleusNucleus & Cytoplasm
16WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF RNA? Messenger RNA(mRNA)Transfer RNA(tRNA)Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-Carries the DNA code to the Ribosome-Bring the recipe to the factory-Links Amino Acids together-Delivers the ingredients-Makes up the Ribosome-The necklace factory
17DNA vs. RNA Partner Matching With your partner, match each characteristic with either DNA or RNAWhen you are done, create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting DNA & RNA using your matching activity.You must create at least 4 similarities!Write one paragraph comparing and contrasting DNA and RNA.Do this independently!
22Re-Writing the DNA code in a slightly different language! What is TRANSCRIPTION?The GOAL of TRANSCRIPTION is to turn DNA into an mRNA messageDNA mRNA messageRe-Writing the DNA code in a slightly different language!
23Where does Transcription take place? IN THE NUCLEUS!!!The DNA can NEVER leave the nucleusSO, the mRNA must go into the nucleus to pick up the DNA code to bring to the RIBOSOMES
24What are the STEPS of Transcription? DNA Polymerase (enzyme!) unzips the DNAUses the DNA template to make an mRNA (messanger RNA): remember, RNA uses U instead of TmRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm
25YOU TRYDNA: A – T – C – C – G – A – G – T – T – AmRNA:
26Transcription Stations Station 1: Transcription PracticeStation 2: Practice EOC Questions
27So… Now we know the DNA codes for the proteins that need to be made.. And, that mRNA picks that code up and brings it to the ribosome.But…then what?
28Lost in Translation What does translation mean? When have you had to translate something?
29What is TRANSLATION? RNAPROTEIN The GOAL of TRANSLATION is the link amino acids together to make PROTEINSRNAPROTEIN
30Where does TRANSLATION take place? The CYTOPLASM and RIBOSOMESCYTOPLASM: because the mRNA travels our of the nucleus into the cytoplasm on the way to the RibosomeRIBOSOME: because this is where the proteins are actually made
31What are the STEPS of Translation? mRNA attaches to the ribosomeRibosome “reads” the mRNA groups in THREE BASES = a CODONa. Each CODON codes for a certain amino acidA tRNA molecule comes along with the right ANTICODON to match the CODONCODON = AAA ANTICODON =CODON = UAG ANTICODON =The tRNA molecules “carries” the amino acids and links them together with PEPTIDE bonds to make a PROTEIN
32What is another name for PROTEINS? POLYPEPTIDES because they are made of many PEPTIDE BONDS
33IMPORTANT TERMS: CODON = is a set of THREE NITROGEN BASES ONE CODON = ONE AMINO ACIDTRANSCRIPTION = DNA mRNA (in nucleus)TRANSLATION = RNAPROTEIN (in cytoplasm/ribosome)
34PROTEIN SYTHESIS ANALOGY: A COOKIE FACTORY GALLERY WALKPROTEIN SYTHESIS ANALOGY: A COOKIE FACTORY
35The RIBOSOME is like… A necklace factory. Because… The whole purpose of the factory is to make necklaces (proteins)
36The DNA is like… The Boss Because… it tells the factory workers which type of necklaces to make.
37The mRNA is like… The Secretary Because… it delivers the necklace recipes and orders to the factoryThe Boss (DNA) tells the secretary (mRNA) which necklaces (proteins) need to be madeThe secretary (mRNA) delivers the Boss’s (DNA) necklaces order to the factory (Ribosome)
38The tRNA is like… The Delivery trucks Because… it drops off the ingredients to the factory for the correct necklaces to be madeThe trucks (tRNA) drop off the ingredients – the beads (amino acids) - to make the necklaces (proteins) that the Boss (DNA) ordered
39So…The Boss (DNA) gives the necklace orders and recipes to the Secretary (mRNA) to bring to the necklace factory (ribosomes).The Delivery Trucks (tRNA) bring the ingredients (amino acids) to the necklace factory (ribosome), where the necklaces (proteins) are made and then shipped out
40With your partner..Take 1 minutes to discuss the analogy and how the necklace factory relates to protein synthesis
43Check Point1) The diagram above depicts the process of ______________________________ synthesis, or how the cell makes proteins from DNA.2) What is the name of the process happening inside the nucleus?3) In one sentence, explain what happens in the nucleus.4) To what organelle does mRNA go to after the first step of protein synthesis?5) What step of protein synthesis happens here?6) Explain what happens during the process you identified above.
44Autoville PracticeUsing your knowledge of Protein Synthesis and the Cookie Analogy, Independently complete Autoville practice
45Now… We know that the mRNA brings the recipe to make the proteins And, the tRNA brings the right ingredients (amino acids) to make the proteinsAnd, the Ribosome actually puts the ingredients together to make the proteinsBUT… How does the tRNA know which amino acids to bring…?