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Measuring Learning Leah J Rowe Air Force Research Laboratory

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1 Measuring Learning Leah J Rowe Air Force Research Laboratory
711 Human Performance Wing Measuring Learning

2 Overview Continuous learning About us The end game
Instructional design theory Where we are going Approach for continuous learning Research and training on all levels Competency based approach Training research testbeds Family of complimentary trainers Live, virtual, and constructive training Best Practices: Putting it all together

3 Continuous Learning (711HPW/RHAS)
Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) 711 Human Performance Wing Human Effectiveness (RH) Warfighter Readiness Research Division (RHA) Develop mission relevant content for learning Measure training outcomes in complex mission environments Accelerate development of mission critical competencies Optimize training value of live, virtual, and constructive environments

4 4/12/2017 4/12/2017 About us CHALLENGE: Training and Readiness requirements are outpacing capacity and existing opportunities to train MISSION: Research human performance methods and technologies that provide the Warfighter the necessary knowledge and skill to dominate their operating environment 4

5 Instructional Design Theory
Instructional Theory Instructional Event Theory Instructional Analysis Theory Instructional Planning Theory Instructional Building Theory Instructional Implementation Theory Instructional Evaluation Theroy Instructional Design Theory Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009 p.9 Design theory is aimed at facilitation generative outcomes… It assists in the creation of something.1 Learning Sciences: A hybrid discipline that includes learning theory and instructional-event theory.1 Purposely multidisciplinary and not as interested in goals as in the use of certain kinds of instructional methods to shed light on certain kinds of learning processes.1 5 1 Reigeluth, C. M., & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (2009). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: Building a Common Knowledge Base (Vol. III). New York: Routledge.

6 Learning Management Systems
LMS Video 6

7 Where We Are Going: Game Changing Learning S&T
Metrics and scenarios Tailored needs assessment/gap analyses Cross-domain readiness assessment Proficiency tracking and feedback Near Proficiency-based training Evidence-based fidelity assessments Cross domain after-action reviews Team and team-of-teams assessment Family of complementary trainers Mid Adaptive, distributed content and assessment Scenario authoring, scripting, and metrics definition standards Common data exchange, control, management Managed learning/feedback across LVC contexts This chart style is optional for briefers who are doing narrow, deep dives. All briefers should convey where their research is going over the duration of their work. Where does it feed? Is it transitioned? The information in this chart (whatever form) should link to one of the last charts in the briefing --- “What’s next” Near term = 1-3 years Mid term = 4-9 years Far Term = 10 years and beyond Globally distributed learning Seamless integration of LVC environments and players Adaptive training and operational environments Portable, personal learning and occupational records Predictive performance models anticipate gaps/refreshers Far

8 Training Research: The Big Picture
The simulators are a means to an end Each systems is in place to execute training research Capitalized on a training research model introduced by Schreiber and Bennett during the Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study2. 76 teams of F-16 pilots and Air Battle Managers participated Represents the largest DMO effectiveness study known to exist today Measures included: objective data from the simulators, multiple participant surveys, subject matter expert ratings of performance, and knowledge structure tests DMO training lead to significant improvements in warfighter performance between the pre-training and post-training assessments 2 Schreiber, B. T., Bennett, W. Jr. (2006a). Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study. Volume I: Summary Report (AFRL-HE-AZ-TR Vol I). Mesa AZ: Air Force Research Laboratory, Warfighter Training Research Division. Distribution A: Approved for public release

9 Approach for Continuous Learning
OBJECTIVES Warehousing What was learned Where How much How often Adapt Conditions Based on Performance & Diagnosis Readiness/Proficiency Monitoring Competencies Knowledge Skills Experiences Gaps … Adaptation Diagnosis Learning Opportunities AAR FEEDBACK CONDITIONS Technical Approach (How we do what we do) Controlled studies with laboratory, operational, industry, and academic partners Three phased development, demonstration and evaluation Component and integrated evaluations Controlled laboratory and testbed evaluations Mission relevant testbeds and tasks Evaluation trials at stakeholder and operational units Integrated operational mission training venues Demonstration and evaluation trials on instrumented ranges Large force training, readiness, and exercise venues Continuous involvement of ops personnel as research participants promotes transition and stakeholding in results Record Measure Match Opportunities to Objectives Scenarios Instructional Events  Structure & Triggers  Strategies & Principles Support resources Data ASSESSMENT Match Measures to Objectives & Conditions Individual/Team/Team of Teams Objective and Subjective What/How to Measure

10 Research & Training on All Levels
Individual Team Of Teams Facilitate the development of strategies, methods, and competency based tools to promote learning Research can be executed by assessing training at a micro level or on a grand scale Environment that provides unique immersive training and research opportunities Provides the capability to demonstrate robust performance assessment within an integrated theater combat environment

11 Training Research: Competency Based Approach
Use a building block or competency based approach. Training curricula, scenarios, and systems are mapped to the knowledge, skills, and experiences that they are able to provide to trainees. Mission Essential CompentenciesSM 3,4: Higher-order individual, team, and inter-team competencies that a fully prepared pilot, crew or flight requires for successful mission completion under adverse conditions and in a non-permissive environment Supporting Competencies: High-level skills that are demonstrated in the context of operational conditions and constraints. Some support a specific MEC, while others support multiple MECs. Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge is defined as information or fact that can be accessed quickly under stress. Skill is defined as a compiled sequence of actions that can be carried out error-free under stress. Experiences: Developmental event during training and/or career necessary to gain knowledge or skills, or practice a MEC under operational conditions 3Alliger, G. M., Beard, R., Bennett, W., & Colegrove, C. M. (2012). Understanding Mission Essential Competencies as a Job Analysis Method. In M. A. Wilson, W. Bennett, S. Gibson, & G. M. Alliger, The Handbook of Work Analysis Methods, Systems, Applications, and Science of Work Measurement in Organizations (pp ). New York: Routledge. 4 Colegrove, C M and W Bennett. Competency-Based Training: Adapting to Warfighter Needs. Technical Report: AFRL-HE-AZ-TR Mesa: Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate Warfighter Readiness Research Division, 2006.

12 Training Research Testbeds
Provide innovative and highly immersive training research to develop efficient and effective training warfighter training solutions What are the supporting competencies, knowledge, and skills, for effective team and team of teams training? What are the training needs, gaps, and opportunities in a networked training environment for the trainees? What is the most effective training structure to effectively train a team-of-teams in a testbed that will provide enhanced training capabilities to the warfighter? Testbeds built to assess Continuous Learning Distribution A: Approved for public release

13 Family of Complimentary Trainers
Assess alternative training strategies and methods for enhancing RPA training by offering solutions that match the level of fidelity required for specific types of training Effectively and appropriately using training resources Leverages both commercial and government off the shelf solutions to build cost effective training gap interventions that allow us to research and develop innovative strategies for continuous learning Continuum of Training

14 Distributed Mission Operations
Virtual Constructive “Train the way we intend to fight”, enabling Air Force warfighters to maintain combat readiness and conduct mission rehearsal in an environment as operationally realistic as possible4 4 Ales, R. & Buhrow, S, (2006) “The Theater Air Ground System Synthetic Battlespace”, Proceedings of the I/ITSEC 2006 Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, November 2006. 14

15 LVC Definitions Virtual Constructive Live
Live – human beings operating actual operational weapons system, in a typical combat environment or training scenario Virtual – real people operating simulators of any kind (i.e., a tank driver in a sim, a JTAC in a dome, or simulated AOC Constructive – computer generated entities, weapons, systems used to enhance the training environment Live – real aircraft in space, burning real jet fuel. Virtual – simulators Constructive – computer generated The state of LVC to date is one of integration . Many DOD and Industry entities are “doing LVC”. They are doing the easy parts first, which is taking live entities and injecting them into the virtual environment. They are also creating their own stovepipes, which will bring back the same problem we have with DMO – we all did DMO, and now we have to spend 10 years and billions of dollars to connect everyone together. The next slide shows some examples of LVC integration in the Air Force…

16 Vision: Continuous Learning in LVC Ops
A capability where aiding and learning activities are interwoven seamlessly with live operations on-demand The end state optimizes individual and team performance through the design, monitoring, support, management, and enhancement of learning and developmental/recurring experiences for current and future operations The foundation is in science and technology related to: Modeling learning and action Enabling proficiency on demand Managing the learning and experiences that occur across the career of warfighters as individuals and as members of teams in complex decision-centric environments The Future State is Performance-Enabled Learning and Readiness

17 Best Practices: Putting it all together
Utilize the methods in the “Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness” study as best practices to develop a robust training research program. Competency-Based Approach Mission Essential Competencies Individual, team, and inter-team under adverse conditions Objectives Scenario-Based Training Entire Kill-Chain Exercises Joint and Coalition Training Conditions Readiness Proficiency Lessons Learned After Action Review Performance Feedback Assessment

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