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MEASURING LEARNING Leah J Rowe Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing.

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Presentation on theme: "MEASURING LEARNING Leah J Rowe Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEASURING LEARNING Leah J Rowe Air Force Research Laboratory 711 Human Performance Wing

2 Overview Continuous learning About us The end game Instructional design theory Where we are going Approach for continuous learning Research and training on all levels Competency based approach Training research testbeds Family of complimentary trainers Live, virtual, and constructive training Best Practices: Putting it all together

3 Continuous Learning (711HPW/RHAS) Develop mission relevant content for learning Measure training outcomes in complex mission environments Accelerate development of mission critical competencies Optimize training value of live, virtual, and constructive environments Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC ) 711 Human Performance WingHuman Effectiveness (RH) Warfighter Readiness Research Division (RHA)

4 About us CHALLENGE: Training and Readiness requirements are outpacing capacity and existing opportunities to train MISSION: Research human performance methods and technologies that provide the Warfighter the necessary knowledge and skill to dominate their operating environment

5 Instructional Design Theory 5 Instructional Theory Instructional Event Theory Instructional Analysis Theory Instructional Planning Theory Instructional Building Theory Instructional Implementation Theory Instructional Evaluation Theroy Reigeluth & Carr-Chellman, 2009 p.9 Design theory is aimed at facilitation generative outcomes… It assists in the creation of something. 1 1 Reigeluth, C. M., & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (2009). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: Building a Common Knowledge Base (Vol. III). New York: Routledge. Learning Sciences: A hybrid discipline that includes learning theory and instructional-event theory. 1 Purposely multidisciplinary and not as interested in goals as in the use of certain kinds of instructional methods to shed light on certain kinds of learning processes. 1

6 Learning Management Systems 6

7 Metrics and scenarios Tailored needs assessment/gap analyses Cross-domain readiness assessment Proficiency tracking and feedback Proficiency-based training Evidence-based fidelity assessments Cross domain after-action reviews Team and team-of-teams assessment Family of complementary trainers Adaptive, distributed content and assessment Scenario authoring, scripting, and metrics definition standards Common data exchange, control, management Managed learning/feedback across LVC contexts Globally distributed learning Seamless integration of LVC environments and players Adaptive training and operational environments Portable, personal learning and occupational records Predictive performance models anticipate gaps/refreshers Where We Are Going: Game Changing Learning S&T

8 Training Research: The Big Picture Capitalized on a training research model introduced by Schreiber and Bennett during the Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study 2. ■76 teams of F-16 pilots and Air Battle Managers participated ■Represents the largest DMO effectiveness study known to exist today ■Measures included: objective data from the simulators, multiple participant surveys, subject matter expert ratings of performance, and knowledge structure tests ■DMO training lead to significant improvements in warfighter performance between the pre-training and post-training assessments Capitalized on a training research model introduced by Schreiber and Bennett during the Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study 2. ■76 teams of F-16 pilots and Air Battle Managers participated ■Represents the largest DMO effectiveness study known to exist today ■Measures included: objective data from the simulators, multiple participant surveys, subject matter expert ratings of performance, and knowledge structure tests ■DMO training lead to significant improvements in warfighter performance between the pre-training and post-training assessments The simulators are a means to an end Each systems is in place to execute training research The simulators are a means to an end Each systems is in place to execute training research 2 Schreiber, B. T., Bennett, W. Jr. (2006a). Distributed Mission Operations Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness Baseline Study. Volume I: Summary Report (AFRL-HE-AZ-TR Vol I). Mesa AZ: Air Force Research Laboratory, Warfighter Training Research Division. bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA Distribution A: Approved for public release

9 Learning Opportunities What/How to Measure Data FEEDBACK AAR Adaptation Readiness/Proficiency Monitoring RecordMeasure Diagnosis Warehousing  What was learned  Where  How much  How often Warehousing  What was learned  Where  How much  How often Approach for Continuous Learning Adapt Conditions Based on Performance & Diagnosis Adapt Conditions Based on Performance & Diagnosis Competencies  Knowledge  Skills  Experiences  Gaps … Competencies  Knowledge  Skills  Experiences  Gaps … Match Opportunities to Objectives Scenarios Instructional Events Structure & Triggers Strategies & Principles Support resources Match Measures to Objectives & Conditions Individual/Team/Team of Teams Objective and Subjective

10 Research & Training on All Levels Individual Team Of Teams Team Of Teams Research can be executed by assessing training at a micro level or on a grand scale Facilitate the development of strategies, methods, and competency based tools to promote learning Environment that provides unique immersive training and research opportunities Provides the capability to demonstrate robust performance assessment within an integrated theater combat environment

11 Training Research: Competency Based Approach Use a building block or competency based approach. Training curricula, scenarios, and systems are mapped to the knowledge, skills, and experiences that they are able to provide to trainees. Mission Essential Compentencies SM 3,4 : Higher-order individual, team, and inter- team competencies that a fully prepared pilot, crew or flight requires for successful mission completion under adverse conditions and in a non-permissive environment Supporting Competencies: High-level skills that are demonstrated in the context of operational conditions and constraints. Some support a specific MEC, while others support multiple MECs. Knowledge & Skills: Knowledge is defined as information or fact that can be accessed quickly under stress. Skill is defined as a compiled sequence of actions that can be carried out error-free under stress. Experiences: Developmental event during training and/or career necessary to gain knowledge or skills, or practice a MEC under operational conditions 3 Alliger, G. M., Beard, R., Bennett, W., & Colegrove, C. M. (2012). Understanding Mission Essential Competencies as a Job Analysis Method. In M. A. Wilson, W. Bennett, S. Gibson, & G. M. Alliger, The Handbook of Work Analysis Methods, Systems, Applications, and Science of Work Measurement in Organizations (pp ). New York: Routledge. 4 Colegrove, C M and W Bennett. Competency-Based Training: Adapting to Warfighter Needs. Technical Report: AFRL-HE-AZ-TR Mesa: Air Force Research Laboratory Human Effectiveness Directorate Warfighter Readiness Research Division, 2006.

12 Training Research Testbeds Provide innovative and highly immersive training research to develop efficient and effective training warfighter training solutions What are the supporting competencies, knowledge, and skills, for effective team and team of teams training? What are the training needs, gaps, and opportunities in a networked training environment for the trainees? What is the most effective training structure to effectively train a team-of-teams in a testbed that will provide enhanced training capabilities to the warfighter? Testbeds built to assess Continuous Learning Distribution A: Approved for public release

13 Family of Complimentary Trainers ■Assess alternative training strategies and methods for enhancing RPA training by offering solutions that match the level of fidelity required for specific types of training ■Effectively and appropriately using training resources ■Leverages both commercial and government off the shelf solutions to build cost effective training gap interventions that allow us to research and develop innovative strategies for continuous learning Continuum of Training

14 Distributed Mission Operations 14 Virtual Constructive “Train the way we intend to fight”, enabling Air Force warfighters to maintain combat readiness and conduct mission rehearsal in an environment as operationally realistic as possible 4 4 Ales, R. & Buhrow, S, (2006) “The Theater Air Ground System Synthetic Battlespace”, Proceedings of the I/ITSEC 2006 Conference, Orlando, Florida, USA, November 2006.

15 LVC Definitions Live Live – human beings operating actual operational weapons system, in a typical combat environment or training scenario Virtual – real people operating simulators of any kind (i.e., a tank driver in a sim, a JTAC in a dome, or simulated AOC Constructive – computer generated entities, weapons, systems used to enhance the training environment Virtual Constructive

16 Vision: Continuous Learning in LVC Ops A capability where aiding and learning activities are interwoven seamlessly with live operations on-demand The end state optimizes individual and team performance through the design, monitoring, support, management, and enhancement of learning and developmental/recurring experiences for current and future operations The foundation is in science and technology related to: ■Modeling learning and action ■Enabling proficiency on demand ■Managing the learning and experiences that occur across the career of warfighters as individuals and as members of teams in complex decision- centric environments The Future State is Performance-Enabled Learning and Readiness

17 Best Practices: Putting it all together Competency-Based Approach Mission Essential Competencies Individual, team, and inter-team under adverse conditions Objectives Scenario-Based Training Entire Kill-Chain Exercises Joint and Coalition Training Conditions Readiness Proficiency Lessons Learned After Action Review Performance Feedback Assessment Utilize the methods in the “Within-Simulator Training Effectiveness” study as best practices to develop a robust training research program.


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