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EOC PRACTICE QUESTIONS #2. Bio 3.1 - Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function of DNA.

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Presentation on theme: "EOC PRACTICE QUESTIONS #2. Bio 3.1 - Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function of DNA."— Presentation transcript:


2 Bio Explain how traits are determined by the structure and function of DNA.

3 DNA and RNA are both made up of _______________which contain a __________,___________, and a __________________. Nucleotides 5-Carbon Sugar phosphate group nitrogen base

4 The sugar in DNA is _________ and in RNA is ____________. Deoxyribose Ribose

5 The bases in DNA are: Adenine Thymine Guanine Cytosine

6 The bases in RNA: Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine

7 DNA shape is a ___________(twisted ladder) double helix

8 RNA shape is: single stranded

9 RNA has 3 forms: - Carries the DNA code from the nucleus to the ribosome ______. - Carries the amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome ______. - Place where the amino acids are put together to make a protein. ________. messenger-RNA (M-RNA) transfer-RNA (T-RNA) ribosomal-RNA (R-RNA)

10 Chromosomes in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells contain ___________and _____________. nucleic acids protein

11 DNA is the genetic information in the nucleus that codes for the production of ______________. proteins

12 DNA Replication (Copy, Synthesize, Duplicate, Complimentary Base Pairs) occurs in the ___________, nucleus

13 The weak bond that holds together the complimentary base pairs in DNA are ____________________. hydrogen bonds

14 Replicated DNA contains one old strand that serves as a template and one new strand making it _______________. semiconservative

15 Replication must occur prior to any type of cell division so that each daughter cell has a __________ to run the cell. copy of DNA

16 The stage of the cell cycle that DNA is replicated in is the _______ of _______. S-phase Interphase

17 The process that converts the DNA code into messenger RNA so that it can leave the _____is called ________. nucleus transcription

18 The process the converts messenger RNA into a protein is called _________ and occurs at the _____________. Translation ribosome

19 Name the process, then tell where the process takes place. Replication Nucleus Transcription Nucleus Translation Ribosome

20 A series of three nitrogen bases on messenger RNA is called a ______. codon

21 A series of three nitrogen bases on transfer RNA is called an _______. anticodon


23 Transcribe TCC-AGT-TAG into mRNA. AGG-UCA-AUC

24 Translate the mRNA into a protein - AGG- UCA-AUC Arginine-Serine-Isoleucine

25 If the anticodon on T-RNA reads UGC, what amino acid does it code for? ACG Threonine

26 A random change in a DNA sequence is called a ______________. mutation

27 Radiation, radon, asbestos, chemicals are all ______________. mutagens

28 There are two types of mutations: _______ and ___________. Point Frame shift

29 True or False - Most mutations are harmful. False

30 Identify the following types of frame shift mutations by labeling them as inversion, deletion, duplication or translocation. Original DNA Sequence – ABCDEF ADEF ABCXYZ AEDCBF ABBCDEF Deletion Translocation Inversion Duplication

31 Bio Analyze how cells grow and reproduce in terms of interphase, mitosis and cytokinesis. Bio Explain the role of meiosis in sexual reproduction and genetic variation.

32 Cells must divide due to __________ratio and lack of ____to tell the cell what to do. surface area to volume DNA

33 Cells have to divide to allow an organism to: _____, _____ injuries, and ______. Grow Repair Reproduce

34 Part of the cell cycle where the cell spends the majority of its life cycle growing and synthesizing DNA is _________. Interphase

35 The stages in mitosis are : ________ PMAT Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase

36 Label the diagrams below. A. Telophase B. Metaphase C. Prophase D. Anaphase

37 This is when the nucleus divides: ____ Mitosis

38 The division of the cytoplasm is called _____________. cytokinesis

39 In plant cells a ___________forms during cytokinesis for the cell wall to develop. In animal cells a ___________forms. cell plate cleavage furrow

40 Type of division that makes haploid cells ____________. Meiosis

41 Type of division the makes diploid cells ___________. Mitosis

42 Type of division that occurs in somatic or body cells ___________. Mitosis

43 Type of division that occurs to form gametes _________. Meiosis

44 Type of division that makes 4 daughter cells ____________. Meiosis

45 Type of division that makes 2 daughter cells __________. Mitosis

46 Type of division that has two divisions ___________. Meiosis

47 Type of division that is one division ____________. Mitosis

48 Type of division that is asexual ______. Mitosis

49 Type of division that is sexual ______. Meiosis

50 Type of cell division that is does not allow for variation _______. Mitosis

51 Type of cell division that allows for variation _________. Meiosis

52 ___________and _____________allow for genetic variation. Crossing over fertilization

53 Name the processes below. Mitosis Meiosis

54 ____________and __________ cause changes in DNA Gene Shuffling (crossing over and fertilization) mutations

55 Human gametes contain __________chromosomes. 23 (22X or 22Y)

56 Human somatic cells contain_________ chromosomes. 46 (44XX or 44XY)

57 Type of cell in the human that undergoes the most rapid mitosis is _________. skin

58 The __________ holds sister chromatids together when DNA replicates during the S-phase of interphase. centromere

59 Label the following types of asexual reproduction. Binary Fission Vegetative Propagation Regeneration Sporulation

60 Chromosomes that are the same length, centromere is in the same location, and the same traits are called _______________. homologous pairs

61 These pairs line up during synapsis of prophase 1 of meiosis and gene shuffling occurs in the process called ______________. crossing over

62 If a corn anther contains 20 chromosomes in the cells, how many chromosomes will the pollen cell have? 10

63 _________is the process in which the gametes unite forming a ________. Fertilization zygote

64 Label the stages of human development below Gastrula (differentiation) Fertilization ZygoteCleavage due to Mitosis Blastula (stem)

65 This is a diagram of __________. crossing over during meiosis

66 Gametogenesis in a male is called ______. It occurs in the _________. ______sperm are produced. Spermatogenesis Testes 4

67 Gametogenesis in a female is called _________. It occurs in the ________. ____________are produced. Oogenesis Ovaries 1 egg and 3 polar bodies

68 Bio Predict offspring ratios based on a variety of inheritance patterns (including dominance, co-dominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, and sex-linked traits).

69 The transmission of genes from parent to offspring is called _________. heredity

70 A unit of hereditary information is called a __________. gene

71 Different forms of a gene are called ___________. alleles

72 Two of the same alleles is called _______________. homozygous or pure

73 Two different alleles is called _____. heterozygous or hybrid

74 The bossy allele that always shows itself and masks the other alleles is __________. Dominance

75 The quiet allele that only shows itself when paired with itself is the _______. Recessive

76 An organisms genetic make-up (actual genes) is its ______________. genotype

77 An organisms physical characteristics are its _______________. phenotype

78 Results in a phenotype where the two dominant alleles show up equally ____________. codominance

79 Results in a blended phenotype _____. incomplete dominance

80 Cross used to determine the genotype for a known phenotype ________. test cross

81 Type of organism always used in a test cross because it has a known genotype and phenotype. homozygous recessive

82 How can two organisms have the same phenotype yet different genotypes? One is homozygous dominant and one is heterozygous

83 Mendel’s principle that the alleles separate during meiosis _______. Principle of Segregation

84 Mendel’s principle that the bossy gene always wins Principle of Dominance

85 Mendel’s principle that the alleles separate independently of each other Principle of Independent Assortment

86 Cross involving one trait monohybrid

87 Cross involving two traits dihybrid

88 The likelihood an event will occur is called ______________. probability

89 Probability (is / is not) based on prior events. is not

90 The Probability that a woman will have three boys in a row is ________. ½ x ½ x ½ = 1/8

91 Tall is dominant over short in pea plants. Cross two hybrid plants. What is the genotypic ratio? What is the phenotypic ratio? 1:2:1 3:1

92 Short tails (S) are dominant to long tails (s). Brown hair (B) is dominant to White hair (b). What is the unknown parent’s genotype for the cross below? SsBb

93 For the cross below, how many of the offspring will be Short tailed and Brown? 9/16

94 For cross below, how many of the offspring will be Short tailed and white? 3/16

95 For cross below, how many of the offspring will be Long tailed and Brown? 3/16

96 For cross below, how many of the offspring will be Long tailed and White? 1/16

97 That makes the phenotypic ratio for this cross ______________. 9:3:3:1

98 In camellias there are red flowers, white flowers and red and white flowers. Is this an example of incomplete or codominance? Codominance

99 Cross a heterozygous red and white flower with a white flower and give the genotypic and phenotypic outcomes genotype 50% RR’ and 50% R’R’ phenotype 50%Red and White and 50% White

100 In snapdragons there are red flowers, white flowers and pink flowers. Is this an example of incomplete or codominance? Incomplete Dominance

101 Cross two heterozygous flowers and give the genotypic and phenotypic outcomes Genotypic ratio 1:2:1 phenotypic ratio 1:2:1

102 A dog with black fur (B) produces a litter of puppies in which 50% of the puppies are black and 50% are white (b). What is the genotype of the parent ? Bb

103 List the genotypes and phenotypes of blood types Phenotypes A B AB O Genotypes I A I A, I A i I B I B, I B i I A I B ii

104 Is it possible for a mom with blood type A and a dad with blood type B to have a child with O blood? ____How? Yes IAi x IBi

105 Cross a type A mother whose mother had O blood with a father that has AB blood. Give the possible phenotypic outcomes. 50%A 25%B 25%AB

106 A trait that shows up only on the sex chromosomes is considered to be sex-linked

107 Two sex-linked diseases are Colorblindness Hemophilia

108 The sex chromosomes of a female are _____and a male are _____. XX XY

109 ______inherit sex-linked traits most often. They get them from their _____. Sons Moms

110 Cross a colorblind female with a normal male. What is the probability the offspring will be colorblind? 50% of the offspring, 100% of the boys

111 Is it possible for a carrier female to have a daughter that is color blind? _____ If so how? Yes The father must be colorblind

112 A family tree is called a ________. pedigree

113 The symbol for a male is a _____ and for a female is a _______. Square circle

114 If they have the disease the symbol is _________. colored in

115 What are the genotypes for each of the people on these pedigrees?

116 Which would represent colorblindness or hemophilia? Sex-linked recessive

117 Which would represent sickle cell or cystic fibrosis? Autosomal Recessive

118 Which would represent Huntington’s disease or Achondroplasia? Autosomal Dominant

119 The diagram below is called a _____. It is a picture of ________. The person in the diagram below is a Male/Female. Karyotype homologous pairs Female

120 The person has the genetic disorder _________, also called _________. This is caused by the failure of chromosomes to separate correctly which is called _____. Down’s Syndrome Trisomy 21 nondisjunction

121 Genetic disorder characterized by abnormal shape of red blood cell that make them unable to carry oxygen is ______. People who are heterozygous are immune to the mosquito carrying disease called ______________. sickle cell anemia malaria

122 Genetic disorder that leads to the buildup of a thick mucus in the lungs is _____. cystic fibrosis

123 Skin color, eye color, height are determined by many genes and are called _________ traits. The phenotype that shows up more frequently are blended. polygenic

124 Which diagram represents fertilization that will develop into a normal female zygote? 1

125 ____________determined all sequence of all the alleles in humans. Human Genome Project

126 _________is the process of making changes in the DNA code of organisms. Genetic Engineering

127 A circular piece of DNA found in bacteria is called a _________. plasmid

128 The combination of genetic material from 2 or more organisms is called ________. recombinant DNA - rDNA

129 __________cut the DNA at the same sequence on different strands of DNA. Restriction enzymes

130 _________puts the two new pieces back together. DNA ligase

131 This technology is used to make ______and ________. Insulin human growth hormone Bt corn Clotting factor Drought and insect resistant crops

132 Bacteria are used in genetic engineering because they reproduce ________ (no variation) and _______. The DNA is then transcribed and translated producing the __________. Asexually Rapidly protein

133 Organisms that have genes from another organism are called ______. BT corn is an example. transgenic organism

134 The below is a picture of ________. recombinant DNA (r-DNA)

135 The diagram below is called _______. Who are the soldiers parents? C&D Gel Electrophoresis or DNA Fingerprinting

136 Fruits and vegetable with longer shelf lives and cows producing more milk are examples of Selective breeding or artificial selection Genetic Engineering

137 The _________ makes many copies of a DNA sequence in a short amount of time polymerase chain reaction

138 _____________inserts normal gene sequences through inhalers into people with diseases like cystic fibrosis so that correct protein sequences may be produced. Gene therapy

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