Presentation on theme: "Warm Up 1.Name the modes of inheritance. 2.If a person has the genotypes I A I A or I A I, what blood type do they have? 3.When there are only 3 phenotypes."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up 1.Name the modes of inheritance. 2.If a person has the genotypes I A I A or I A I, what blood type do they have? 3.When there are only 3 phenotypes in an organism, what are the possible types of inheritance?
Agenda Objective: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made up of the nucleotides adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine –Go over Quizzes and options to improve your grade –KWL Chart on DNA –DNA Activity –Approximately 20 minutes to work on corrections Notebooks: please turn them in at the end of class today
Quizzes Hand back Pass out cheat sheet Options for improving grade –Retake (You would have to come in after school or during lunch) –Corrections (You will have an opportunity to start during class today)
Correction Example Mom is heterozygous for Type A blood. Dad has type AB blood. What possible blood types could their children inherit? (2 points) Based on the Punnett Square, there are three different possibilities. If a person has a genotype of I A I A or I A i, then they have type A blood. If a person has I B i then they have type B blood. Finally if a person has I A I B then the person has type AB blood. That means these parents could have a child with Type A, B or AB blood.
Another example Human height and weight are determined by multiple different genes. As a result, there is a wide variety of heights and weights for people to express. What type of inheritance is this? (incomplete, co-dominance, multiple alleles, polygenic, sex-linked)? (1 point) Say I put down that it was incomplete dominance. I would explain that it’s actually polygenic because the problem says both traits are determined by multiple genes. Polygenic literally means “many” “genes”.
What do we already know about DNA? It’s a type of nucleic acid It stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid DNA is found in all cells In Eukaryotic cells, DNA is found in the nucleus It carries our genetic information and determines our traits Segments of DNA are called genes DNA is bundled up into chromosomes
Why is DNA important? DNA contains our genetic information DNA is a set of instructions within the cell for making proteins Proteins determine just about everything about you –Whether you are lactose intolerant –What skin color you have –Your eye color –Control the rate of reactions in our body
Warm up Directions: Unless I tell you otherwise, you do not have to copy the questions anymore But you need to date every warm up. Name at least two reasons why DNA is important. Write in complete sentences.
Agenda Objectives: SWBAT: identify that DNA is made up of nucleotides that follow the base pairing rule AND compare and contrast DNA and RNA by creating a chart Finish Building DNA Activity Notes Exit Ticket Work on Quiz Corrections
Announcements Quiz Corrections are due tomorrow. You will get a little time at the end of class to work and ask me questions. You can come in to retake, or take the quiz for the first time, during lunch or after school For warm-ups you will not always get a stamp if you simply finished the warm up. I will start checking for correct answers.
What is the Structure of DNA? a.Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA looks like a twisted ladder or double helix b.It’s made up of subunits called nucleotides -Each nucleotide has a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogen base
Label the parts on your copy: Phosphate Sugar Nitrogen Base Hydrogen Bonds a.DNA has the sugar deoxyribose “D” for deoxyribose “D” for deoxyribose
Types of Nitrogen Bases a.There are 4 types of nitrogen bases in DNA -A= Adenine -T= Thymine -C= Cytosine -G= Guanine b.Nitrogen bases connect the 2 strands of DNA together, like the rungs (steps) of a ladder
Exit Ticket 1.Each nucleotide has a ________, ____________ and ___________ ________ 2.If one strand of DNA was ACTACTGGG, what would be the complimentary strand?
Warm Up 1.Give yourself a rating for each one of the following categories. Be honest.
Agenda Objectives: SWBAT: compare and contrast DNA and RNA by creating a chart AND Describe that replication is when DNA makes a copy of itself. Comparison Chart Coloring and Labeling Activity Video White Board Activity ( If we have time) Exit Ticket Reminder: Turn in your quiz corrections. Friday is the last day to do a retake.
DNA Contains all our genetic information Is made up of subunits called ______________ Each subunit contains a phosphate, _________ and _______________ _________
Base Pairing a.Nitrogen bases pair up to make the steps of the ladder b.In DNA -“A” always pairs with “T” And -“C” always pairs with “G”
Complementary Strands a.Each strand of DNA is complimentary to the other –That means that each strand’s nitrogen bases match up (A - T, C - G) b.Example: If the code on one strand of DNA is ACGTC, then the complimentary strand would be TGCAG
Practice Problems: Write the Complimentary Strand 1. ATCGC 2. TGCAGA 3. CCCGTACGTA 4. TAGTGACTAGC
RNA a.RNA is another type of nucleic acid that’s found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell b.Unlike DNA, RNA is made up of only one strand of nucleotides
Difference in Nitrogen Bases a.Instead of having the base thymine, RNA has the base uracil b.That means when RNA is formed, adenine pairs with uracil (A - U)
Sugars a.One main difference between RNA and DNA is that they are made up of different sugars -RNA has the sugar ribose -DNA has the sugar deoxyribose
DNA vs. RNA Found in the nucleus Found in the nucleus and cytoplasm Double-stranded (double helix) Single-stranded Deoxyribose sugarRibose sugar A pairs with TA pairs with U T pairs with AU pairs with A
You will have 10 minutes to color in your molecule of DNA and strand of mRNA. Create a key that shows me which shape represents each base. Make each base a different color
Warm Up 1.Name the 4 nitrogen bases of DNA 2.If a strand of DNA has the bases AATGGCTCA, what would the complimentary strand look like? 3.What is one difference between DNA and RNA
Agenda Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication, transcription and translation are codependent processes that ultimately make proteins AND In transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine. Notes White Board Practice Video Clips Practice Problems
Before a cell divides, what does it need to do? Demo
Enzymes a.Enzymes are responsible for unzipping the DNA and adding the bases to form the 2 new molecules. b.Enzymes are proteins in our cells. They help regulate chemical reactions in our body. c.Helicases are enzymes that split the DNA and DNA polymerase adds the bases d.Proteins help make proteins!
11 Is this a strand of DNA or RNA? –AGCCGUUAUGCGAU
Importance of DNA DNA is responsible for providing instructions to make proteins. Proteins are responsible for the expression of our genes. Ex. A protein is responsible for the amount of melanin in your skin. The more melanin you have, the darker your skin is.
How are proteins made? In order to make proteins, 3 processes must occur -DNA Replication (makes DNA) -Transcription (makes mRNA) -Translation (makes proteins)
What happens during Transcription? A strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) is made using DNA as a template.
What happens during Transcription? One strand of the DNA is the template Nitrogen bases attach to the DNA by following the base pairing rule except U will replace T The sequence (order of the nitrogen bases) of RNA depends on the strand of DNA Example:A-C-C-A-A-A U-G-G-U-U-U
mRNA Just like DNA is split up into segments called genes, a strand of mRNA is split up into sections called codons. Codons are “words” of mRNA that are made up of three nitrogen bases. –Example: AUC or GGU Codons code for amino acids that make up proteins
Brain Pop Video http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthan ddevelopment/rna/http://www.brainpop.com/health/geneticsgrowthan ddevelopment/rna/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-the- code-of-life.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/body/cracking-the- code-of-life.html
Agenda Objectives: SWBAT explain that replication, transcription and translation are codependent processes that ultimately make proteins AND In transcription, a strand of mRNA is created from a strand of DNA with uracil replacing thymine. Transcription Activity Exit Ticket