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# Topic 5: sense Introduction to Semantics. Definition The sense of an expression is its indispensable hard core of meaning. The sum of sense properties.

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Topic 5: sense Introduction to Semantics

Definition The sense of an expression is its indispensable hard core of meaning. The sum of sense properties and sense relations with other expressions.

Sense properties Analyticity Syntheticity Contradiction

Sense property 1: analyticity The sense of an analytic sentence is necessarily true. Example Bachelors are unmarried.

Sense property 2: syntheticity The sense of an synthetic sentence is either true or false. Example Bachelors don’t know how to form a long-term relationship.

Sense property 3: contradiction The sense of a contradictory sentence is necessarily false. Example Bachelors are married.

Sense properties: note Imperative and interrogative sentences cannot be analytic or synthetic. They cannot be true or false. Example: Are you a student? Halt!

Sense Relations similarity synonymy Paraphrase/ proposition hyponymy dissimilarity antonymy Binary/ complementary converses gradable Contradiction/ proposition Ambiguity Lexical ambiguity homonym polysemy Structural ambiguity

Sense relations: similarities Synonymy Paraphrase Hoponymy

Synonymy and paraphrase Synonymy/synonym The relationship between two predicates with the same sense Paraphrase Two sentences share the same proposition.

Hyponymy/hyponym The meaning of one predicate is included in the meaning of the other predicate. Red, crimson, scarlet

Sense relations: dissimilarity Antonymy/antonym Contradictory propositions

Antonymy: binary antonyms Binary/complementary antonyms Two predicates with two totally incompatible truth values. If A is true, it cannot be false. Alive-dead

Antonymy: Converses The opposite relationship of the two predicates is not semantically absolute (i.e., not binary/ complimentary). The oppositeness is based on the relationship of the two predicates Buy-sell

Antonymy: gradable antonyms There are semantic values on the continuous semantic scale. Hot-cold Always-(often)–(sometimes)-(seldom)- never

Sense relations (3): ambiguity Lexical ambiguity When a word has more than one sense Structural ambiguity When a sentence has two or more paraphrases.

A word/phrase is ambiguous If it has two or more synonyms that are not themselves synonyms of each other. Plane Airplane Flat surface

Types of word ambiguity Homonym Polysemy

Homonym The senses of a predicate are remotely or unlikely related to each other. Bank Financial institution The side of a river

Polysemy The senses of a predicate are closely related conceptually. The extension of semantic concepts. Fork

Structural ambiguity Multiple paraphrases of a sentence The chicken is ready to eat The chicken wants to eat something. We eat the chicken.

Example The boy left Mary with a broken heart.

NP NDet Theboy a broken heart VP NP V N left S Mary PP P NP with

NP NDet Theboy a broken heart VP NPV N left Mary PP P NP with S

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