Presentation on theme: "Topic 5: sense Introduction to Semantics. Definition The sense of an expression is its indispensable hard core of meaning. The sum of sense properties."— Presentation transcript:
Sense relations: similarities Synonymy Paraphrase Hoponymy
Synonymy and paraphrase Synonymy/synonym The relationship between two predicates with the same sense Paraphrase Two sentences share the same proposition.
Hyponymy/hyponym The meaning of one predicate is included in the meaning of the other predicate. Red, crimson, scarlet
Sense relations: dissimilarity Antonymy/antonym Contradictory propositions
Antonymy: binary antonyms Binary/complementary antonyms Two predicates with two totally incompatible truth values. If A is true, it cannot be false. Alive-dead
Antonymy: Converses The opposite relationship of the two predicates is not semantically absolute (i.e., not binary/ complimentary). The oppositeness is based on the relationship of the two predicates Buy-sell
Antonymy: gradable antonyms There are semantic values on the continuous semantic scale. Hot-cold Always-(often)–(sometimes)-(seldom)- never
Sense relations (3): ambiguity Lexical ambiguity When a word has more than one sense Structural ambiguity When a sentence has two or more paraphrases.
A word/phrase is ambiguous If it has two or more synonyms that are not themselves synonyms of each other. Plane Airplane Flat surface