Presentation on theme: "Motivational Interviewing – a flavour Preparing people for change Dr. Gerard Garbutt."— Presentation transcript:
Motivational Interviewing – a flavour Preparing people for change Dr. Gerard Garbutt
You would think... That having had a heart attack would persuade a man to quit smoking, change diet, exercise and take his medication. That hangovers, damaged relationships, a car crash, and memory blackouts would be enough to convince a woman to stop drinking.
Clinician Assumptions This person ought to change This person wants to change Patient’s health is motivation No change = failure Now is the right time Being tough is best I know –my advice is good Negotiation is always best
First intro 1983 For alcohol problems To ‘prime’ for treatment Enhance intrinsic motivation
Behaviour Change Counselling ‘Ways of structuring a conversation which maximises the individual’s freedom to talk and think about change in an atmosphere free of coercion and the provision of premature solutions’ –Assessing readiness –Weighing up pros and cons –Determining action - moving patients on
What is MI? Cognitive approach – Deals with facts and thought processes Strategic –Agenda driven & directive Empathic –Non judgmental, reflective, affirming, respectful Client-centred –Views from client’s perspective, reinforces personal responsibility Empowering –Client in control, supports self-efficacy
What MI is not: Giving Information Giving Advice Persuading Warning Confronting Agreeing
The task of MI is… Evocation: –critical elements of change are within the person –the clinician’s task is to draw them out Collaboration: –the clinician is a resource –the client is the expert Autonomy: –it is the client, not the clinician, who must decide to change and provide the means for it
The Basics - Affirmation The clinician says something positive or complimentary to the client. –“I appreciate you getting here today“ Encouraging statements –“Good for you” –“Well done”
The Basics - Open Questions Open questions: Leave latitude for a response. Client has to think about it ‘What do you want to do about your drinking?’ v ersus ‘Do you want to quit or cut down?’ Purpose of questions: To gather information What, Why, When, How, Where, Who? To understand a client’s story.
Five General Principles of MI Express Empathy Explore Ambivalence Develop Discrepancy Roll with Resistance Support Self-Efficacy Throughout – emphasise the desirable
Express empathy Getting alongside Simple reflective listening Affirmation Respectfulness You want patients say: –‘I felt heard/understood’ –‘I wanted to carry on talking’
Explore Ambivalence Seeing both sides Non-judgemental/dispassionate Decisional balance
Decisional Balance ++++++-------- ^ Weighing up pros and con’s Seesaw Balance sheet
Develop Discrepancy Explore client values Establish client goals Contrast with behaviour Cognitive dissonance –Conflict between opposing self beliefs and /or behaviour leads to resolution or rationalisation
I’ve stopped smoking vs I had a few cigarettes last night I’m a good mother vs I injected heroin in front of my son I must stop this behaviour I really am addicted, what can I do? I’m a failure, I have no control Cognitive Dissonance
What is Resistance? Suddenly changes tack Reasons NOT to change –Justifying –Blaming –Ignoring –Arguing –Interrupting –Changing the subject
Rolling with Resistance Avoid argumentation through: Shifting focus Reframing Agreement with a twist Emphasising personal control
Support self-efficacy Optimism Emphasise client’s past achievements Convey the success of others Selectively reinforce optimistic/motivated statements
Envisioning Projecting into the future: –What will happen if behaviour doesn’t change? –What would be different if you could make the change? Or directively: –if you carried on what would be the downside? –if you changed/stopped, what would be the benefits?
Decision making – bringing it all together Summarise the ambivalence Elaborate the pros and cons of change Emphasise personal control Support self-efficacy Positive images of the future after change Ask: –What would you like to do now about your drinking?
Conflict Resolution is the key: Try to elicit a decision: I’ll stop I’ll cut down I’ll get help I’ll come back to see you Firm up the decision- Ensure it’s personal
A brief MI intervention Introduction and consent Decisional balance Feedback - cognitive dissonance Envisioning Decision making
Feedback – giving the facts Common in primary care – eg: –GGT & ALT –Units –Questionnaire results –Behaviour related health check ups –Opportunity to open a motivational dialogue What do the facts mean to the patient?
Feedback method Introduce test Describe implications Check understanding Check meaning to the client Provide normative range Present results Check understanding Avoid jargon
Feedback exercise Feeding back information from some liver function tests using the methodology described. Check understanding/significance first! Gamma GT(15-35)150 ALT(10-50) 90
Motivational Interviewing Ways of structuring a conversation which maximises the individual’s freedom to talk and think about change in an atmosphere free of coercion and free of the provision of premature solutions (Rollnick et al. 1999)