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Chapter 19: Social Factors Human Factors EXP 4250 Dr. Steve Presentation by Laura Shaver.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19: Social Factors Human Factors EXP 4250 Dr. Steve Presentation by Laura Shaver."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19: Social Factors Human Factors EXP 4250 Dr. Steve Presentation by Laura Shaver

2 Chapter Overview Types of Systems Types of Systems Groups and Teams and Their Performance Groups and Teams and Their Performance Team Training Team Training Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Decision Making through Groupware Decision Making through Groupware Computer-Supported Team Performance Computer-Supported Team Performance Difficulties in Remote Collaboration Difficulties in Remote Collaboration Macroergonomics and Industrial Intervention Macroergonomics and Industrial Intervention

3 Behavior at work Function of: Function of: Social context Social context Organizational context Organizational context Groups/teams, team training,computer- supported cooperative work, macroergonomics Groups/teams, team training,computer- supported cooperative work, macroergonomics Exs: norms,social loafing,why we all hate group projects in class Exs: norms,social loafing,why we all hate group projects in class

4 Types of Systems Complexity Complexity Feedback loops Feedback loops Interconnected subsystems Interconnected subsystems High complexity: require decentralization High complexity: require decentralization Low complexity: less feedback, fewer systems reliant on each other Low complexity: less feedback, fewer systems reliant on each other Coupling Coupling Type and degree of connection between subsystems High coupling: tight centralization High coupling: tight centralization Low coupling: provides more flexibility amongst subsystems Low coupling: provides more flexibility amongst subsystems

5 High Coupling Low Coupling High Complexity Nuclear power plant, airplane Universities, government agencies Low Complexity Marine or rail transport Traditional manufacturing Highly complex, tightly couples = little room for error

6 Groups and Teams Increased Increased Efficiency Efficiency Flexibility Flexibility Due to increased complexity and cognitive demands Due to increased complexity and cognitive demands Wider organizational design Wider organizational design Decision making decentralized Decision making decentralized

7 So what’s the difference? Teams Teams Complimentary Role differentiation Coordination lead to goal completion Groups Groups Similar roles Little differentiation Individual contributions lead to goal completion Crews?

8 Which is which?

9 Group Performance Dispensable? Dispensable? Distinguishable? Distinguishable? Responsibility for outcome? Responsibility for outcome? Motivated? Motivated? Best Performer’s Individual Average Group’s

10 Negatives of Groups Groupthink: minimize conflict by not thoroughly analyzing info Groupthink: minimize conflict by not thoroughly analyzing info Collective rationalization: explain away contrary info Collective rationalization: explain away contrary info Pressure to conform: “yes man” – go with the flow Pressure to conform: “yes man” – go with the flow

11 Team Performance Leader must fit to task Leader must fit to task Individuals must have complimentary: Individuals must have complimentary: Task work skills Task work skills Teamwork skills Teamwork skills Remain small – larger makes communication difficult Remain small – larger makes communication difficult As project complexity increases, so does the team’s complexity As project complexity increases, so does the team’s complexity So what makes a team successful?

12 Characteristics of Successful Teams Common and meaningful vision and purpose Common and meaningful vision and purpose Defined performance goals Defined performance goals Members are mutually dependent on one another Members are mutually dependent on one another Commitment to team Commitment to team Transformational leadership Transformational leadership Coordination Coordination Shared accountability Shared accountability

13 Team Training Not uniformly beneficial Not uniformly beneficial Task work skills and teamwork skills Task work skills and teamwork skills Teamwork Skills include: Teamwork Skills include: Cooperation Coordination Communication Adaptability Giving suggestions/criticisms Acceptance of suggestions/criticisms Team spirit

14 High Role Differentiation Low Role Differentiation High External Synchronization Action/ negotiation teams Production/ service teams Low-to-Medium External Synchronization Product/ development teams Advice/ involvement teams Job cross-training: eliminates need for role differentiation, increases knowledge, and increases cohesiveness

15 Communication Problems No shared mental model No shared mental model No time/resources to plan/strategize No time/resources to plan/strategize No cognitive resources to ask others for info No cognitive resources to ask others for info No implicit communication in emergencies No implicit communication in emergencies

16 Groupware Computer-supported cooperative work Computer-supported cooperative work Reduces communication barriers Reduces communication barriers Provides structure and direction Provides structure and direction

17 How does computer-supported communication help? Provides anonymity Provides anonymity Imposes structure Imposes structure Provides work-processing functions Provides work-processing functions Provides work space for ideas and discussion Provides work space for ideas and discussion Reduces counterproductive behavior Reduces counterproductive behavior Reduces control problems Reduces control problems

18 Computer-supported team performance: Group-view Displays Provide a status overview Provide a status overview Direct personnel to additional information Direct personnel to additional information Support collaboration among crew members Support collaboration among crew members Support coordination of crew activities Support coordination of crew activities

19 Difficulties Knowing who is doing what Knowing who is doing what Loss of subtle physical and facial cues Loss of subtle physical and facial cues Situational awareness Situational awareness Usability, knowledge, and comfort for users Usability, knowledge, and comfort for users

20 Virtual Teams Must combat difficulties Must combat difficulties Growing in popularity Growing in popularity Trust among members – fragile but vital Trust among members – fragile but vital Develop trust by face- to-face meetings prior to virtual work Develop trust by face- to-face meetings prior to virtual work Trust: Trust: Replaces supervision Reduces uncertainty Facilitates choice under uncertainty Increases decentralization Increases adaptive behavior

21 Macroergonomics Microergonomics: individual level, e.g., work areas, employees Microergonomics: individual level, e.g., work areas, employees Cannot transfer to social situations or overall organization Cannot transfer to social situations or overall organization Industrial interventions typically at this level Industrial interventions typically at this level Macroergonomics: larger subsystems within organization, e.g., personnel/social, tech, connections between subsystems Macroergonomics: larger subsystems within organization, e.g., personnel/social, tech, connections between subsystems

22 Participatory Ergonomics Employees know their job and organization (hopefully) Employees know their job and organization (hopefully) Aids in “buy in” Aids in “buy in” Afterwards, employees are knowledgeable about system and trouble-shooting Afterwards, employees are knowledgeable about system and trouble-shooting

23 Blackwell Article Social networking Social networking Flattening of the world Flattening of the world Knowledge and availability Knowledge and availability Virtual teams Virtual teams Talent Talent Abundant Abundant Diverse Diverse Multifaceted Multifaceted More to find and grow it More to find and grow it

24 Ted Talks mos_wii_remote_hacks.html mos_wii_remote_hacks.html mos_wii_remote_hacks.html mos_wii_remote_hacks.html _his_breakthrough_touchscreen.html _his_breakthrough_touchscreen.html


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