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Bacterial Genetics. Review Genome: genetic blueprint Gene: Most organisms-DNA Viruses –DNA or RNA.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacterial Genetics. Review Genome: genetic blueprint Gene: Most organisms-DNA Viruses –DNA or RNA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacterial Genetics

2 Review Genome: genetic blueprint Gene: Most organisms-DNA Viruses –DNA or RNA

3 Nucleic acids Nucleotides –Sugar –Phosphate –Nitrogenous base DNA –Guanine-G; cytosine-C; adenine-A; thymine-T RNA –Uracil-U replaces thymine

4 Review DNA –ds helix Strands held together by H bonds Complimentary base pairing –A pairs with T; in RNA, A pairs with U –C with G Linear sequence of bases contains info 3 nucleotides code for 1 amino acid

5 Duplication of DNA Replication of chromosome(s) Precise duplication of DNA DNA polymerase Denaturation: separate strands

6 Terms Genotype: set of genes carry instructions Phenotype: expression of those genes Genome of prokaryotes includes chromosomal DNA and plasmids

7 Flow of Information DNA to RNA to polypeptides Transcription-synthesis of complimentary strand of RNA from DNA-mRNA –Separates strands of DNA –Copies only DNA needed for protein synthesis-mRNA

8 Flow of Information Translation: protein synthesis –Decodes sequence of nucleotides into amino acids (20) –Genetic Code: codons, group of 3 nucleotides-AAU,CGC AUG-start codon

9 Degenerate Code Each codon specifies a particular amino acid Several codons code same aa

10 Flow of Information Translation –Ribosomes-site of protein synthesis –tRNA recognizes the specific codon –tRNA forms complimentary base pairing with the codon –Has anticodon & carries the required aa

11 Question AUG is first codon on mRNA. What is the anticodon on the tRNA?

12 Regulation of Gene Expression Prokaryotes:Where is mRNA transcribed in cell? –Translation can begin before completion of mRNA molecule

13 Regulation of Gene Expression Eukaryotes: Where? –mRNA contains exons and introns –Exons are expressed, encode for aa –Introns do not –Processing by ribozymes to remove introns & splice exons

14 Regulation of Gene Expression Conserve energy Turn on & off transcription of genes Constitutive genes not regulated Operon

15 Operons Regulation of metabolic genes Uses repressors (regulatory genes) –Block RNA polymerase from attaching

16 Induction Turn on the transcription of gene Inducer- induces transcription Inducible enzymes –Synthesized only when substrate is present Glycolysis genes constitutive

17 Lac Operon Inducible operon: enzymes to metabolize lactose Default is “off” Regulatory sites –Promoter- – –Operator-

18 Lac Operon i genes code for repressor-regulatory protein –Always turned on –Binds to operator Structural genes –Lac operon-3 genes

19 Lactose in Medium Binds repressor changing shape Repressor can’t bind RNA polymerase can bind Enzymes for lactose metabolism produced To turn on operon:

20 Repressible Operon Tryptophan operon Usually occurs in anabolism Repressor is inactive so tyrptophan is synthesized Default in “on”

21 Tryptophan Operon Amino acid in media –Binds to repressor activating it Genes to synthesize amino acid produced

22 Mutation Change (heritable) in base sequence of DNA –Called mutant –Genotype differs from parent –Phenotype may be altered

23 Types of Mutations Spontaneous mutations –DNA replication errors –Occur at low frequencies Induced mutations-mutagens –Alter structure of bases –Errors in base paring

24 Point Mutations Change in 1 base-pair –Single base is replaced with another –Change in genotype –May be change in phenotype

25 Types of Point Mutations Silent mutation- no phenotypic change Degenerate code

26 Missense Mutations Change in amino acid Can result in significant changes in polypeptide

27 Examples of Missense Sickle cell anemia- hemoglobin –Change from glutamic acid (hydrophilic) to valine (hydrophobic) Change in shape of protein

28 Nonsense Mutation Base-pair substitution Create stop codon in middle of mRNA –Premature termination of translation

29 Frame Shift Mutation Bases deleted or inserted Shifts translational reading frame Large insertions are transposons


31 Induced Mutations Mutagens Increase mutation rate Chemical mutagens –Nitrous acid –Occurs at random sites

32 Radiation UV light -nonionizing Covalent bonds between certain bases Adjacent thymines(Ts) can cross link –Pyrimidine dimers Some enzymes that repair UV damage

33 Nucleoside Analog Structurally similar to normal bases Have altered base pairing 2 aminopurine replaces A & may pair with C 5-bromouracil replaces T but may pair with G

34 Genetic Recombination Physical exchange of genes between 2 homologous DNA molecules Contributes to population’s genetic diversity

35 Horizontal Transfer Microbes of same generation Involves a donor cell - gives DNA to recipient cell Part of DNA incorporated into recipient’s DNA

36 Transformation Free (naked) DNA in solution –Cells after death, release DNA Cells may take up DNA –Only in certain stage of cell cycle

37 Competence Cells able to take up DNA & be transformed Release competence factor that helps in uptake

38 Transformation Enzymes cut DNA into small pieces Recombination between donor & recipient Few competent bacteria

39 First Evidence of Transformation Griffith in 1920s Streptococcus pneumoniae in mice

40 Conjugation Mediated by one kind of plasmid –F plasmid or F factor Genes to control conjugation Donor cells must have F plasmid

41 Differs from Transformation Cells must be of opposite mating types –Donor is F plus –Recipient is F minus Requires direct cell contact Transfers larger quantities of DNA

42 Conjugation Gram negative cells Gram positive cells produce sticky surface molecules –Keeps cells together

43 Conjugation Plasmid is replicated –A copy of plasmid transferred to recipient F minus cell becomes F plus Receptors on new F plus change

44 F Plasmid Plasmid integrates into the chromosome converts cell to Hfr cell( high frequency of recombination) F factor DNA can separate and become plasmid

45 Conjugation Hfr and F- cell Replication of Hfr begins in middle of integrated F factor Small piece leads the chromosome into F- cell Donor DNA can recombine (DNA not integrated is degraded)

46 Transduction Bacterial DNA is transferred via a virus -Bacteriophage Virulent phages –lytic cycle Generalized transduction –Any gene on donor chromosome transferred

47 Generalized Transduction All genes are equally likely to be packaged inside phage –Virus cannot replicate in new bacteria –Defective virus Specialized transduction-only certain bacterial genes transferred

48 Plasmids Extra chromosomal material F factor or plasmid is a conjugative plasmid –Carries genes for sex pili and for transfer

49 Dissimilation Plasmids Enzymes break down unusual sugars and hydrocarbons –Pseudomonas use toluene and petroleum as carbon and energy sources –Used to clean up oil spills –Allows bug to grow in adverse environments

50 Virulence Plasmids E. coli carries plasmids that code for toxins –diarrhea Bacteriocins- toxic proteins kills other bacteria –E. coli produces colicins

51 Resistance Factors R factors- resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals or cellular toxins Wide spread use of antibiotics- led to selection of bacteria with R factors with resistant genes

52 Transposition Segment of DNA moves from one place in chromosome to another –Rare event –Transposable elements –Insert within a gene & inactivate it

53 Transposons Contain information for own transposition Insertion sequences (IS) contain only gene for transposase Complex transposons carry genes for enterotoxins or antibiotic resistance

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