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Diploma of Children’s Services CHCCCN520C Advocate for the rights of children and young people Julie Carmel Identify indicators of Child Abuse.

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Presentation on theme: "Diploma of Children’s Services CHCCCN520C Advocate for the rights of children and young people Julie Carmel Identify indicators of Child Abuse."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diploma of Children’s Services CHCCCN520C Advocate for the rights of children and young people Julie Carmel Identify indicators of Child Abuse.

2 What is abuse? Child abuse is an act or omission by an adult that endangers or impairs a child physical or emotional health and development.

3 What is abuse? Child abuse is an act or omission by an adult that endangers or impairs a child physical or emotional health and development.

4 Identifying Child Abuse This can be a very difficult thing to identify Children can be harmed both physically and emotionally.

5 Types of abuse  PHYSICAL  EMOTIONAL  SEXUAL .PHSYOLOGICAL

6 Privacy and Confidentiality in Early Childhood  The Information Privacy Act 2000 and the Health Records Act 2001 was introduced to provide a legal framework to support the appropriate balance between the free flow of information for the public good and the protection of privacy of personal information.  They guarantee that organisations manage personal information according to the law.

7 Legal Definition of a Child in Need of Protection The legal definition of a child in need of protection is provided by the Children and Young Persons Act 1989, Section 63. Interpretation of the parents capacity and willingness to Protect is made with regard to the degree of community support and services available to assist the parent in this responsibility. For the purpose of this Act a child is in need of protection if any of the following grounds exist: a)The child has been abandoned by their parent and after reasonable inquiries: i) the parents can not be found; and, ii) no other suitable person can be found who is willing and able to care for the child; b) b) The child’s parents are dead or incapacitated and there is no other suitable person willing or able to care for the child; c) The child has suffered or is likely to suffer, significant harm as a result of physical injury and the child’s parents have not protected, or are unlikely to protect, the child from harm of that type;

8 Legislation Cont d) The child has suffered or is likely to suffer, significant harm as a result of sexual abuse and the child’s parents have not protected, or are unlikely to protect, the child from harm of that type; e) The child has suffered or is likely to suffer, emotional or psychological harm of such a kind that the child’s emotional and intellectual development is, or is likely to be, significantly damaged and the child’s parents have not protected, or are unlikely to protect, the child from harm of that type; f) The child’s physical development or health has been, or is likely to be, significantly harmed and the child’s parents have not provided, arranged or allowed the provision of, or are unlikely to provide, arrange or allow the provision of, basic care or effective medical, surgical or other remedial care.

9 Indicators of Harm Physical Indicators bruises burns scalds welts internal injuries shaking injuries strangulation injury to genital or rectal area bleeding or bruising discomfort in urinating or defecating frequent urinary tract infections vaginal or anal bleeding or discharge sexually transmitted diseases pregnancy especially in very young adolescents

10 Indicators Cont. The child or young person is: treated as a scapegoat emotionally rejected isolated verbally abused continually devalued exposed to domestic violence The child or young person is not provided with: a safe environment

11 Behavioural indicators wary of physical contact with adults frightened of parent expresses little or no emotion when hurt unduly compliant, shy, withdrawn, passive, uncommunicative offers unlikely explanation for injuries nervous, hyperactive, aggressive, disruptive child tells of abuse persistent and age-inappropriate sexual activity regressive behaviour,… bed-wetting, speech loss delinquent or aggressive behaviour self-injurious behaviour alcohol abuse, self mutilation, suicide attempts, prostitution shows signs of depression compliant, passive, undemanding low self esteem demanding, aggressive and angry antisocial and destructive attention seeking indiscriminate with affection constantly miserable and irritable

12 Who abuses Children Child abuse happens across all families and cultures. Statistics show that Aboriginal and Torres strait Islander children have a higher risk of abuse Biological parental abuse accounts for 63% of abuse 81% by someone the child knows

13 Risk Factors Warning Research and experience has found that combinations of the following factors are commonly associated with heightened risk to children or young people: Note: Carers can include any parent, carer or adult in the household.

14 Parents or carers Prior Child Protection history Prior substantiated abuse reports. Escalating concern or pattern of contact with Child Protection service. If parent or carer: Was under 20 at birth of first child. Was abused as a child. Is not the biological parent Has an intellectual disability. Is socially isolated the family is severely fragmented

15 Carer/s history of violent relationships Physically abused a child (past or present). Been a perpetrator of domestic violence. Been a victim of domestic violence. A history of other violence.

16 Carer/s current problems If a carer has problems concerning: Alcohol abuse. Abuse of other drugs (with or without alcohol). Psychiatric illness. Self-esteem. Apathy or depression.

17 Carer/s beliefs about the child Describes (or acts toward) the child in a predominately negative manner Has unrealistic expectations.

18 Carer/s history of perpetrating sexual assault If a carer has a history of perpetrating sexual assault Of children. Of adults.

19 Parenting skills of carer/s Use of excessive punishment or inappropriate discipline. A domineering parenting style (high criticism/low warmth family type). A lack of motivation or realism regarding improvement of parenting skills.

20 . Response to investigation or incident by carer/s Viewed the situation less seriously than did the Child Protection worker. Failed to cooperate satisfactorily.

21 . The child If the child: Is under two years. Shows evidence of physical abuse/shaking. Is premature, disabled, chronically ill. Has difficulty feeding, sleeping, cries a lot. Was born underweight or drug dependant. Another child or young person in the home If any child or young person in the home has: A developmental/other disability. A history of self-harm/suicide (talk or attempt). A history of offending. Violent behaviour. A mental health problem. Substance abuse problems. Recent significant behaviour change. A history of multiple separations or no stable placement, for example, no stable day program(education/employment/other.

22 Did you know?  65% of children murdered in Australia were killed by there parents.  Girls are 3 times more likely to be the victims of sustained sexual abuse  Children under 12 months are more likely to be victims of neglect  2 year olds burns  3 year olds abuse  Abused children are more likely to be from single parent (female headed) or from blended family compared o two parent intact families

23 Defining Abuse Physical Abuse Common sign repetitive Accidents Multiple bruises, wounds, abrasions Variety of wounds in different stages of healing Absence of injuries after hospitalisation or change of caregiver

24 Bruises Bruises are leakage of blood into the skin that is produced by tissue damage from a direct blow or a crushing injury Are the earliest and most visible sign of child abuse Bruises on face, buttocks, upper arm, trunk, front of thighs, side of faces, ears, neck, stomach and genitals Colour of bruises vary on body, from old to fresh Shape of bruise

25 What to check for Depth of bruise Pattern Number Location Appearance Explanation

26 Burns Immersion Burns- caused by immersing in hot water or liquid Cigarette burn marks- circle like marks over body Contact burns from flames or hot solid objects Burns in mouth- from drinking chemicals

27 What to look for Depth of burn Pattern Number Location Appearance Explanation

28 Poisoning Agents commonly used- barbiturates, tranquillisers and drugs, insulin, ipecac,arsenic,laxatives, salt,alcohol, marijuana and opiates

29 Indicators Cause major changes in child’s behaviour ranging from irritability, listlessness, lethargy, stupor, convulsions, coma death

30 Eye injuries Two black eyes together Raccoon eyes/ panda eyes- head trauma Hyphema ( entry of blood into front chamber of eyes) Pain in eyes and visual problems Retinal haemomorrhage- shaken bay syndrome

31 Internal Injuries Injuries to a child’s internal organs is usually caused by a blow with a heavy object to abdomen or squeezing child hard Is the smallest percentage of child abuse cases of those who do over 50% die

32 Signs and symptoms Swollen or distended abdomen Abdominal, chest, flank, back pain Bruising of chest and or abdomen Laboured/ painful breathing Nausea Vomiting blood Vomiting

33 Fractures and dislocations Most fractures are inflicted on non walking children 90% of abusive fractures in children up to 2 years, include ribs from being squeezed tightly Ribs Arms Legs Noses Jaws Skull

34 Indicators Varity of fractures in different stages of healing Symmetrical fractures Breathing difficulty (ribs)

35 Neurological Injuries Skull, brain or spinal cord damage Intracranial haemorrhage Subdural hematoma Caused when child is choked, under arms,upside down for long periods, shaken

36 What to look for Lethargy Excessive sleepiness Blood in eyes Child unable to focus eyes Blood oozing from nose, ears Paralysis Developmental delay On set of cerebral palsy Bald areas on head Can lead to death

37 Ears, teeth, mouth and lips Damage to ears Bruised earlobe Dislodged tooth with bruising present Torn frenulum Swollen or bruised lips

38 Causes/ results Ears Hearing loss Bleeding form ears Pinching of ear lobes Teeth/mouth/lips Strong blow to mouth Forced feeding Hand held over mouth for extended period of time

39 Bites Human bite marks appear as distinctive oval shaped bruises facing each other If the distance between the canines is greater than 3 cm adult bite Torn flesh - animal bite- intact adult Adult bite sign of uncontrolled aggression

40 Welts, Grooves, lacerations Red marks on child’s body caused by restraining child Pattern of belt or loop pattern of whipping Unusual cut marks on child’s body

41 Marks made on areas that not normally associated with restraint i.e. penis Pattern location, depth of cuts made by objects Indicators

42 Important information Lacerations on ear,nose and throat do not tend to occur accidentally Some areas on the body are naturally protected i.e.  Inner thigh  Inside of foot  Under arms These areas are unlikely to become injured accidentally

43 In Conclusion All professionals working with children and/or their families share in the responsibility of protecting children. A professional ethical and legal responsibility, and their duty of care, all persons employed and working with children have a legal obligation to report any suspected child abuse. (mandated)


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